ELÄIMILLÄ LISÄINFEKTIOITA

Valvojat: Borrelioosiyhdistys, Jatta1001

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ELÄIMILLÄ LISÄINFEKTIOITA

Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Loka 19, 2010 14:14

Norjassa tutkittiin 306:n lehmän verinäytteet. 27%:lla oli positiivinen babesia - näyte

Acta Vet Scand. 2010 Oct 6;52(1):55 [Epub ahead of print]
Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence
antibody test in cow sera.

Hasle G, Bjune GA, Christensson D, Roed KH, Wist AC, Leinaas HP.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia
divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930s,
but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation
and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both
economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey
the distribution of B. divergens. METHODS: We tested sera from 306 healthy
pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an
indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT). Fractions of seropositive
cows were compared by calculating 95% CI.

RESULTS: The results of this test
showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies.
The
fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped
distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in
the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities
between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. CONCLUSIONS: Neither
the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an
adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing
of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B.
divergens in an area.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20925923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

______________________________________________________
Kissoilla ja koirilla esiintyy ehrlichioosia ja anaplasmoosia (2010)

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010 Nov;40(6):1121-40.
Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats.

Little SE.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences,
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-2007, USA.
susan.little@okstate.edu

In the time since canine ehrlichiosis due to Ehrlichia canis was first described
in 1935 and first recognized in the United States in 1962, many key advances
have been made in our understanding of the diversity of the rickettsial
organisms responsible for ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and,
occasionally, cats, the vectors capable of transmitting these agents, and the
role these organisms play as both important veterinary pathogens and zoonotic
disease agents. Despite considerable progress in the field, much remains to be
learned regarding mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis, effective treatment
modalities, and prevention strategies that best protect pet health. This article
highlights current understanding of the transmission, diagnosis, and management
of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier
Inc. All rights reserved.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20933140 [PubMed - in process]

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » La Loka 23, 2010 08:19

Espanjan pieneläimissä oli pääasiassa Bartonella-bakteerin alalajeista 2 ja 3 jotka ovat läheistä sukua Bartonella tayloriille - myös B. grahamii, B. elizabethae ja B. rochalimae:ta löydettiin. Bakteerien vaiktusta ihmisten terveyteen tulee kiireellisesti tutkia. (Espanja 2010)

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Oct 8; [Epub ahead of print]
Variability of Bartonella genotypes among small mammals in Spain.

Gil H, Garcia-Esteban C, Barandika JF, Peig J, Toledo A, Escudero R, Jado I,
Rodriguez-Vargas M, Garcia-Amil C, Lobo B, Roales P, Rodriguez-Moreno I, Olmeda
AS, Garcia-Perez AL, Anda P.

Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda,
Madrid, Spain; Hospital de Getafe, Getafe, Madrid, Spain; NEIKER- Instituto
Vasco de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario, Derio, Vizcaya, Spain; Facultad de
Biologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain; Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad
Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

In order to study which Bartonella genotyopes are circulating among small
mammals in Spain, we have analyzed the spleen of 395 animals from 3 different
areas: 247 from the Basque Country (northern Spain), 121 from Catalonia
(northeastern Spain) and 27 from Madrid (central Spain) by a triplex PCR
combined with a reverse line blot previously described by our group. The
prevalence of Bartonella was 26.8% (106/395) and in 4.8% (19/395) of the animals
more than one Bartonella genotype was detected. The study of gltA and ITS
sequences in the positive samples showed a large diversity, allowing the
assignation of them into 22 genotypes. The most prevalent genotypes were 2 and 3, which are closely related to Bartonella taylorii. Additionally, 9 genotypes were associated with specific mammal species. Genotypes close to the zoonotic B. grahamii, B. elizabethae and B. rochalimae were also detected. Ten genotypes showed a percentage of similarity with known Bartonella species lower than 96%, suggesting the presence of potential new species. Further studies to know the impact of these pathogens on human health and especially in cases of febrile illness in our country are strongly recommended. Furthermore, our method has been updated with 21 new probes in a final panel of 36, which represents a
robust molecular tool for clinical and environmental Bartonella studies.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20935117 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » La Loka 23, 2010 08:21

Bartonella - bakteerin aiheuttama infektio on kissoilla yleinen. Bakteeri tarttuu ihmisiin esim. kissojen kirppujen välityksellä. (USA 2010)

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010 Nov;40(6):1073-90.
Feline bartonellosis.

Guptill L.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, 625 Harrison
Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. guptillc@purdue.edu

Bartonella infection is common among domestic cats, but the role of Bartonella
species as feline pathogens requires further study. Most Bartonella species that
infect cats are zoonotic. Cats are the mammalian reservoir and vector for
Bartonella henselae, an important zoonotic agent.

Cat fleas transmit Bartonella
among cats, and cats with fleas are an important source of human B henselae
infections. New information about Bartonella as feline pathogens has recently
been published, and this article summarizes much of that information. Issues
surrounding diagnosis and treatment of feline Bartonella infections are
described, and prevention of zoonotic transmission of Bartonella is discussed.
Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20933137 [PubMed - in process]

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Helmi 23, 2011 10:12

TUTKITTAVILLA KOIRILLA ESIINTYI SEKÄ ANAPLASMAA ETTÄ BORRELIA-BAKTEEREITA. Oireet:
uupumus, ruokahaluttomuus, liikuntavaikeudet, kuume, tromposytopenia jne

"Dogs that were thrombocytopenic and had antibodies to both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi had a median platelet count of 51,000/μL (range 20,000 to 171,000/μL), which was significantly lower than the count in dogs with antibodies only to A. phagocytophilum (P=0.04) Some dogs had an apparent relapse of clinical signs after an appropriate course of doxycycline."


J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2010 Nov-Dec;46(6):405-12.
Clinical presentation of 26 anaplasma phagocytophilum-seropositive dogs residing in an endemic area.
Mazepa AW, Kidd LB, Young KM, Trepanier LA.
Departments of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1102, USA.
Abstract
Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, the etiological agent of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, is capable of inciting moderate to severe clinical disease in a variety of mammals and is endemic in the upper midwest.
The purpose of this study was fourfold: to describe the range of clinical signs in dogs seropositive to A. phagocytophilum; to examine the prevalence of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in this population; to evaluate whether specific clinical signs were associated with coexposure to Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi in actively infected dogs; and to determine whether clinical response to doxycycline was complete in treated dogs.

Medical records of dogs seropositive for A. phagocytophilum were reviewed retrospectively.
Peripheral blood smears were also reviewed retrospectively for granulocytic Anaplasma morulae. Lethargy (81%), inappetence (58%), and lameness (50%) were the most common clinical signs, followed by fever (46%). Thrombocytopenia was the most common laboratory abnormality, and IMHA was diagnosed in three dogs.
Dogs that were thrombocytopenic and had antibodies to both A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi had a median platelet count of 51,000/μL (range 20,000 to 171,000/μL), which was significantly lower than the count in dogs with antibodies only to A. phagocytophilum (P=0.04). Some dogs had an apparent relapse of clinical signs after an appropriate course of doxycycline.
Testing for A. phagocytophilum by polymerase chain reaction, serum antibody assays, and/or blood smear evaluation should be considered in dogs with IMHA, cough, or epistaxis and that reside in A. phagocytophilum-endemic areas.
If moderate to severe thrombocytopenia is present, testing for concurrent B. burgdorferi infection may be warranted.
PMID: 21041333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Helmi 28, 2011 17:59

Belgialaisista punkeista löydettiin Babesia EU1 ja babesia microtia. Punkkeja (1005) kerättiin kissoista ja koirista. Niistä löytyi myös borrelia-bakteereita.


http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10 ... .2009.0189

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

First Molecular Evidence of Potentially Zoonotic Babesia microti and Babesia sp. EU1 in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Belgium

To cite this article:
Laetitia Lempereur, Ann De Cat, Yannick Caron, Maxime Madder, Edwin Claerebout, Claude Saegerman, Bertrand Losson. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. February 2011, 11(2): 125-130. doi:10.1089/vbz.2009.0189.
Published in Volume: 11 Issue 2: February 1, 2011
Online Ahead of Print: June 24, 2010

Abstract

We report the first molecular evidence of the presence of Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. A 1-year national survey collected 1005 ticks from cats and dogs. A polymerase chain reaction technique amplifying a part of the 18S rRNA gene detected Babesia spp. in 11 out of 841 selected and validated tick extracts. Subsequent sequencing identified Ba. microti (n = 3) and Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 6). This study has demonstrated a low infection rate (1.31% with 95% CI: 0.65?2.33) of Babesia spp. carriage in I. ricinus ticks in Belgium but, for the first time, reports two potentially zoonotic species belonging to this genus. Coinfection with Ba. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto also was demonstrated. In addition, this study clearly demonstrates that inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction amplification are present in engorged ticks.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » To Syys 08, 2011 15:44

Hevosilla anaplasmoosia.

Seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses in the Czech Republic.

Praskova I, Bezdekova B, Zeman P, Jahn P

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2011 06; 2 (2): 111-5

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the aetiological agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA). The aim of this survey was to assess the prevalence of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies in the horse population of the Czech Republic (CZ) and to investigate possible links between seropositivity and the geographic origin, age, and/or sex of the tested horses. Antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were screened using an indirect fluorescent antibody method (IFA). Serum samples from 96 healthy horses from 8 localities (7 within the CZ and one control upland/tick-free locality in Ukraine) were examined. While the controls tested negative, the seroprevalence in the Czech localities was estimated at 73%, which suggests that subclinical EGA is common among horses in the CZ. Significant differences between seropositivity rates in individual stables were demonstrated (explicable by the different environment and/or management styles of the horses stabled therein). Horses in stables from which previous manifest cases had been reported tended to have higher average titres. Mares displayed a somewhat higher seropositivity rate than did stallions; age had no demonstrable effect upon the serological status of the examined horses.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Syys 16, 2011 19:25

Espanjalaisella koiralla esiintyi esim. immunoglobuliinien häiriintynyttä toimintaa Bartonella infektion aiheuttamana.

Gammopathy in a Spanish dog infected with Bartonella henselae.

Tabar MD, Maggi RG, Altet L, Vilafranca M, Francino O, Roura X

J Small Anim Pract 2011 04; 52 (4): 209-212

Generalised pyogranulomatous disease and hyperviscosity syndrome associated with a presumed monoclonal gammopathy was diagnosed in a three-year-old intact female Pomeranian. The Bartonella henselae antibody titer was 1:64 and Bartonella species DNA was amplified from the splenic tissue. Monoclonal gammopathies in dogs are typically associated with plasma cell and lymphoid dyscrasias and other inflammatory or infectious diseases such as ehrlichiosis and leishmaniosis. Based on this case report, infection with Bartonella species should also be added to the differential diagnoses for gammopathy in dogs. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of molecular evidence of Bartonella species infection in a sick dog in Spain.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Loka 10, 2011 11:01

Ehrlichia-bakteerit aiheuttavat maailmanlaajuisesti infektioita sekä ihmisille että eläimille. Useat ehrlichian alalajit aiheuttavat infektioita koirille. Hoidossa käytetään ensisijassa tetrasykliinejä kuukauden ajan. Akuuttiin tautiin ne uesimmiten tehoavat hyvin mutta toistaiseksi tuntemattomasta syystä teho on huono kroonisissa tapauksissa. (2011)


. Monocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs.

Procajło A, Skupień EM, Bladowski M, Lew S

Pol J Vet Sci 2011 09; 14 (3): 515-20

Ehrlichiosis is the multiorgan infectious disease caused by small, intracellular rickettsias from the genus Ehrlichia. These microorganisms are known as an etiologic factor of infections world wide in humans and in different species of animals. Dog ehrlichiosis can be caused by several species of Ehrlichia attacking different groups of blood cells, but most often an infection by Ehrlichia canis is diagnosed with special relation to monocytes. A vector for E. canis are Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus, commonly occurring in Poland. Disease caused by E. canis is known as Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME). The disease most often has an asymptomatic course which can, in favourable circumstances, run into acute or chronic forms. The acute form of CME proceeds usually with fever, apathy, weakness and accompanying respiratory symptoms, lameness and disturbances in blood coagulation. In laboratory examinations thrombocytopenia, anemia and leucopenia are ascertained. Th e chronic form of CME proceeds among gentle, unspecific symptoms which may last even 5 years. The CME diagnosis is difficult and often demands parallel different diagnostic methods. A medicines of choice in the ehrlichiosis treatment are antibiotics from the group of tetracyclines, given at least for 28 days. They are largely efficient during treatment of the acute CME, causing the quick improvement. Instead, in the case of chronic form, answer for treatment can be weak, and cases of resistance to antibiotics ave known.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Elo 29, 2012 12:39

Kroonista bartonella-bakteerin aiheuttamaa infektiota esiintyy yleensä van alle 2-vuotiailla kissoilla. Harvemmin vanhemmilla. Tauti tarttuu kissasta toiseen kirppujen väityksellä.


http://www.medfetch.com/r/39751/22918844/


Chronic Bartonellosis in Cats: What are the potential implications?

Authors: Stützer B, Hartmann K

Citation: J. Feline Med. Surg. 2012(Sep); 14(9): 612-21.

Location: Clinic for Small Animal Medicine, LMU University of Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany.

DOI: 10.1177/1098612X12458208



Practical relevance: Bartonellae are small, vector-transmitted Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that are well adapted to one or more mammalian reservoir hosts. Cats are the natural reservoir for Bartonella henselae, which is a (re-)emerging bacterial pathogen. It can cause cat scratch disease in humans and, in immunocompromised people, may lead to severe systemic diseases, such as bacillary angiomatosis.

Cats bacteraemic with B henselae constitute the main reservoir from which humans become infected. Most cats naturally infected with B henselae show no clinical signs themselves, but other Bartonella species for which cats are accidental hosts appear to have more pathogenicity.

Global importance: Several studies have reported a prevalence of previous or current Bartonella species infection in cats of up to 36%. B henselae is common in cats worldwide, and bacteraemia can be documented by blood culture in about a quarter of healthy cats. The distribution of B henselae to various parts of the world has largely occurred through humans migrating with their pet cats.
The pathogen is mainly transmitted from cat to cat by fleas, and the majority of infected cats derive from areas with high flea exposure. No significant difference in B henselae prevalence has been determined between male and female cats.

In studies on both naturally and experimentally infected cats, chronic bacteraemia has mainly been found in cats under the age of 2 years, while those over 2 years of age are rarely chronically bacteraemic.

Evidence base: This article reviews published studies and case reports on bartonellosis to explore the clinical significance of the infection in cats and its impact on humans. The article also discusses possible treatment options for cats and means of minimising the zoonotic potential.

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