TUTKIMUKSIA

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TUTKIMUKSIA

Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Kesä 11, 2010 20:34

Tutkimuksia joissa borreliabakteereita tutkittiin koirista ja hevosista. Hevoset saavat tartunnan usein mutta sairastuvat harvoin. Koirilla sen sijaan eiintyy usein esim. iho- ja virtsatieoireita sekä anemiaa.

Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008 Jun;15(1):85-90.
Seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs and horses in Turkey.

Bhide M, Yilmaz Z, Golcu E, Torun S, Mikula I.

Laboratory of Biomedical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Komenskeho-73, Kosice, Slovakia. mangeshbhide@hotmail.com

The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in a population of Turkish dogs and horses, as well as to compare the sensitivity of novel flow-cytometry-based borreliacidal antibody test (BAT) with ELISA assay. Serum samples collected from 400 dogs and 300 horses were tested with enzyme-linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA), using Borrelia whole cell antigens. ELPAGA test showed 93 dogs (23.2%) and 18 horses (6%) serologically positive for anti-Borrelia antibodies. In parallel testing of sera with BAT, we found 27.75% positive dogs and 6.33% positive horses. When the results of these serological testes were compared with the health status of the animals, the most common clinical signs noticed in dogs were skin manifestations, urinary tract disorder and anemia; however, no clinical symptoms were observed in horses positive for the anti-Borrelia antibodies. This is a first time that seroprevalence of Lyme disease in dogs and horses has been reported from Turkey, as well as the use of novel BAT in animals.

PMID: 18581984 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Vet Q. 2005 Dec;27(4):146-56.
Borrelia burgdorferi infections with special reference to horses. A review.

Butler CM, Houwers DJ, Jongejan F, van der Kolk JH.

Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. c.m.butler@vet.uu.nl

This review discusses the literature on B. burgdorferi infections in view of the rising incidence of this infection in general and the increasing concerns of horse owners and equine practitioners. Lyme disease, the clinical expression of Borrelia infections in man is an important health problem. The geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi infections in equidae should resemble that of human cases because the vector tick involved, Ixodes ricinus, feeds on both species and, indeed, the infection has been established many times in horses. However, a definite diagnosis of the disease "Lyme borreliosis" in human beings as well as in horses and other animals is often difficult to accomplish. Although a broad spectrum of clinical signs has been attributed to B. burgdorferi infections in horses, indisputable cases of equine Lyme borreliosis are extremely rare so far, if they exist at all.

PMID: 16402512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Med Microbiol. 2002 Jun;291 Suppl 33:80-7.
Horses and Borrelia: immunoblot patterns with five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains and sera from horses of various stud farms in Austria and from the Spanish Riding School in Vienna.

Müller I, Khanakah G, Kundi M, Stanek G.

Institute for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology of the University Vienna, Wien, Austria.

Grazing animals are continuously exposed to tick bites. Consequently, one may expect that horses will become infected with the various pathogens carried by ticks including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Whether horses may develop clinical disease due to this pathogen is controversially discussed. We were interested to learn about the infection of horses with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within one season by studying the dynamics of the humoral immune response in paired blood samples. The majority of horses examined were Lipizzaner from the stud farm in Piber/Steiermark, and from the Spanish Riding School in Vienna. Smaller groups of animals of different breeds were from stud farms in Kärnten, Niederösterreich, Salzburg and Steiermark. Clinical status and medical history were obtained and blood was drawn at the beginning of the highest tick activity and nine months later in 1998. Immunoblot technique (Western blot) was used in order to determine the dynamics in the immune response patterns. As antigens served the genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Borrelia valaisiana. 309 horses (age median 7 years, range 1/12 to 33 years) were seen at the first round. 186 of these animals (60.2%; median age 6 years, range 4/12 to 33 years) were re-examined in the second round. All animals were in normal health condition during both rounds of examination and blood sampling. Analysis of the immunoblot patterns was based on in-house-, Pko-, Pka2-, Pbi-, and European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB) 2 & 3-criteria; analyses revealed a variety of positive results with different strains and criteria. Positive immunoblot results with 186 paired samples and B. afzelii as antigen, for example, ranged from 52 to about 91% in the first, and 53 to 93% in the second round. The age dependency analyses showed that the first infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato occurs in the first year. Re-infection is characterised by appearance of additional bands. Continuously tick-exposed horses show a stable pattern of bands whilst in unexposed horses the number of bands decreases with age. In this study horses became repeatedly infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato but, apparently, developed only rarely, if at all, clinical diseases. The infectious agent is predominantly B. afzelii. Antibodies to other borrelia genospecies are predominantly due to cross reactivity.

PMID: 12141766 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Loka 19, 2010 14:34

Eläimistä Borrelioosia tavataan useimmiten koirilla (2010)

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010 Nov;40(6):1103-19.
Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats: background, diagnosis, treatment and
prevention of infections with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

Krupka I, Straubinger RK.

Bacteriology and Mycology, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses,
Department of Veterinary Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-University,
Veterinarstrasse 13, 80539 Munich, Germany.

Lyme borreliosis (LB), synonymous with the often-used term Lyme disease, is an
infectious disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. LB
is the most frequent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern Hemisphere.
In animals, clinically apparent disease is found primarily in dogs. Severe
polyarthritis, fever and lameness in dogs are reported from the main endemic
areas of North America: the New England States, and eastern parts of the United
States; several cases of LB are also seen in California and the Midwest. Because
of the difficulties in finding sufficient indicative clinical signs, additional
information (detailed case history, laboratory testing for antibodies) is
especially important to make the clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. This
article reviews the etiology, diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of LB.
Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20933139 [PubMed - in process]

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Marras 24, 2010 13:59

12-vuotias hevonen sairastui neuroborrelioosiin. Hevoselle annettiin suonesisäisesti tetrasykliiniä, mutta se menehtyi hoidosta huolimatta (2010)

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Nov 15;237(10):1180-5.
Meningitis, cranial neuritis, and radiculoneuritis associated with Borrelia
burgdorferi infection in a horse.

James FM, Engiles JB, Beech J.

Departments of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary
Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Case Description-A 12-year-old Thoroughbred was examined because of signs of
depression, neck stiffness, and poor performance.
Clinical Findings-Physical examination revealed that the horse was dull, appeared depressed, was reluctant to raise its neck and head above a horizontal plane, and had a temperature of 38.5 degrees C (101.3 degrees F). No radiographic or scintigraphic abnormalities of the neck were found; however, high plasma fibrinogen concentration and
relative lymphopenia were identified and the horse was seropositive for
antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. Analysis of CSF revealed neutrophilic
inflammation, and results of a PCR assay of CSF for B burgdorferi DNA were
positive. Immunologic testing revealed severe B-cell lymphopenia and a low serum
IgM concentration consistent with common variable immunodeficiency.
Treatment and Outcome-The horse responded well to doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg [4.5
mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 60 days) and returned to normal exercise. However, 60
days after treatment was discontinued, the horse again developed a stiff neck
and rapidly progressive neurologic deficits, including severe ataxia and
vestibular deficits. The horse's condition deteriorated rapidly despite IV
oxytetracycline treatment, and the horse was euthanatized. Postmortem
examination revealed leptomeningitis, lymphohistiocytic leptomeningeal
vasculitis, cranial neuritis, and peripheral radiculoneuritis with Wallerian
degeneration; findings were consistent with a diagnosis of neuroborreliosis.

Clinical Relevance-Nervous system infection with B burgdorferi should be
considered in horses with evidence of meningitis and high or equivocal serum
anti-B burgdorferi antibody titers. Evaluation of immune function is recommended
in adult horses evaluated because of primary bacterial meningitis.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 21073390 [PubMed - in process]

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Helmi 11, 2011 22:10

Kahdella hevosella todettiin krooninen neuroborrelioosi. Bakteereja löydettiin tulehtuneista kudoksista, selkäytimestä, lihaksista ja nivelistä.


Lyme Neuroborreliosis in 2 Horses

Veterinary Pathology published 1 February 2011


D. M. Imai, B. C. Barr, B. Daft, J. J. Bertone, S. Feng, E. Hodzic, J. M. Johnston, K. J. Olsen, and S. W. Barthold


10.1177/0300985811398246
Abstract

Lyme neuroborreliosis?characterized as chronic, necrosuppurative to nonsuppurative, perivascular to diffuse meningoradiculoneuritis?was diagnosed in 2 horses with progressive neurologic disease. In 1 horse, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of B burgdorferi sensu stricto?specific gene targets (ospA, ospC, flaB, dbpA, arp). Highest spirochetal burdens were in tissues with inflammation, including spinal cord, muscle, and joint capsule. Sequence analysis of ospA, ospC, and flaB revealed 99.9% sequence identity to the respective genes in B burgdorferi strain 297, an isolate from a human case of neuroborreliosis. In both horses, spirochetes were visualized in affected tissues with Steiner silver impregnation and by immunohistochemistry, predominantly within the dense collagenous tissue of the dura mater and leptomeninges.

Jatta1001

Viesti Kirjoittaja Jatta1001 » La Helmi 12, 2011 10:40

Taidankin tästä lähteä eläinlääkäriin !

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Helmi 28, 2011 17:28

Beagles koirilla tehty tutkimus: Mikäli Borrelioosia ei hoideta heti tartunnan alussa, bakteeri voi aiheuttaa neurologisia-, sydän-, munuais-ja/tai nivelsairauksia. Bakteerit aiheuttavat elimistössä tulehduksia joita ei saa hoidettua välttämättä edes suonensisäisillä antibioottihoidoilla. Niveltulehduksiin hoito voi kuitenkin auttaa. Mikäli koira saa samanaikaisesti kortisonihoitoa eli immuunipuolustusta heikentävää lääkitystä, koiralle voi kehittyä vakava moniniveltulehdus.

http://cmapspublic3.ihmc.us/rid=1223216 ... 20Dogs.pdf

Borrelia experiment on beagels

During the early stage the spirochetes are susceptible to antibiotics. If left untreated, neurological, cardiac, renal disease, and arthritis,

are potential manifestations of the late-stage disease as the organisms can take residence in areas

not accessible to humoral and cellular immune responses or antibiotics. Remaining organisms

may then multiply and be responsible for sites of inflammation, resulting in recurrent episodes of

arthritis and other associated clinical signs [39, 55]. Antibiotic administration, orally or intravenous,

fails to eliminate a persistent infection in dogs but may prevent and cure joint disease [55]. However,

persistently infected dogs when subsequently treated therapeutically with an immunosuppressant
(e.g., prednisone) may develop severe polyarthritis [56].

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Touko 02, 2011 12:06

Lemmikkieläimet altistuvat ilmaston lämpenemisen myötä yhä useammin hyönteisten ja punkkien välittämiin infektiotauteihin. Punkkien määrä on ilmaston lämpenemisen myötä lisääntynyt ja niitä tavataan yhä pohjoisemmasta. Siitä syystä koirat, hevoset jne. altistuvat tulevaisuudessa yhä useammin esim. punkkien välittämiin tauteihin. Esim. eurooppalainen koirapunkki aiheuttaa malarian kaltaisen sairauden, babesioosin.

http://www.vetscite.org/publish/items/005155/index.html 21 April 2009 Pets may become latest victims of climate change Pets are normally sheltered from the harsh realities of wild living. But across Europe, increasing temperatures will expose pets to new infectious diseases spread by ticks, fleas and mosquitoes, according to new research. Tick populations already appear to be increasing with the change in seasons. As winters become milder, ticks are becoming active all year round. The European dog tick is transmitting a malaria-like disease, canine babesiosis, into countries where it was once rare including Belgium, Germany, Poland and the Netherlands.Meanwhile, Ixodes ticks are living at greater densities across Europe, increasing their risk of passing tick-borne encephalitis to horses and dogs. Cat flea typhus, still a rare disease, may also become more common in both cats and dogs, according to Frederic Beugnet of Merial Animal Health in Lyon, France.In a separate paper, Claudio Genchi of the University of Milan, Italy, has found that dogs in central Europe will increasingly become vulnerable to the roundworm dirofilaria, spread by mosquitoes, as summer temperatures climb high enough for the parasite to incubate in its fly host.Susan Shaw and colleagues at the University of Bristol, UK, have also found a significant reservoir of canine leishmaniosis in dogs living in the southern UK. If climate change allows sandflies to spread into the country, there is a real danger the disease could spread, they warn.Source: Veterinary Parasitology New ScientistApril 21, 2009

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Touko 30, 2011 08:51

https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/han ... sequence=3


7.1.1 Borrelioosi
Lymen tauti eli borrelioosi voi tarttua punkinpuremien välityksellä. Aiheuttajia ovat
gramnegatiivisen spirokeetan Borrelia burgdorferin alalajit, jotka ovat ehdottomia
loisia.(8) Normaalisti villieläimet toimivat säilymönä. Lymen borrelioosi voi tarttua
koiran ja ihmisen lisäksi ainakin hevoseen, nautaan ja lampaaseen.(8)

Levinneisyys: Eurooppa, Aasia, USA, Australia.(12) Suomessa borreliaa kantaa
tutkituista punkeista keskimäärin 32 %.(9)

Elinkierto ja tartuntareitit: Väli-isäntänä toimii harvoin paarma,(9) tavallisin väliisäntä
on Ixodes -suvun puutiainen.(12) Punkki infektoituu syödessään veriaterian
infektoituneesta eläimestä. Yleensä puutiainen infektoituu toukkavaiheessa, jolloin se
käyttää ravinnokseen pikkunisäkkäiden, liskojen ja lintujen verta.(8) Nymfinä ja
aikuistuttuaan punkit ruokailevat suuremmissa eläimissä ja levittävät sairautta niihin.
Tauti voi levitä myös punkkiemosta sen muniin.(8)

Oireet koiralla: Jalkaa vaihtava ontuminen niveltulehduksen johdosta sekä kuume,
väsymys, ruokahaluttomuus ja suurentuneet imusolmukkeet.(12) Myös sydämen,
munuaisten ja hermoston toimintahäiriöitä esiintyy.(8)

Oireet ihmisellä: Iholle noin viikossa kehittyvä erythema migrans eli rengasmainen
punoitus puremakohdan ympärillä, on ensioire joka toisella potilaalla.(9) Muita
varhaisoireita ovat kuumeilu, raajaa vaihtavat säryt ja uupumus. Monenlaisia muita
oireita ovat, riippuen infektoivasta lajista, muun muassa iho- nivel- sydän- ja
neurologiset häiriöt.(12)



(8) Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Carter ME, Donnelly WJ, Leonard FC. Veterinary Microbiology and
Microbial disease. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2002.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Elo 26, 2011 11:30

Koirat voivat ihmisten lailla sairastua Borrelioosiin. Seuraamalla koirien sairastumismääriä voidaan arvioida ihmisten riskiä saada borrelia-tartunta.

Tracking Lyme Disease in Dogs May Help Protect Humans
Canine blood tests can indicate high-risk areas for people, CDC researchers say

Posted: August 10, 2011

By Steven Reinberg
HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, Aug. 10 (HealthDay News) -- Tracking Lyme disease infections in dogs may help scientists predict possible outbreaks of the tick-borne illness in humans, government researchers report.
Click here to find out more!

Since dogs are also susceptible to Lyme disease, they can be a good indicator of the risk of human infection, the scientists from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. When blood tests show that few dogs in a given area carry the bacteria, the risk to people is relatively low, they noted. Conversely, when more dogs test positive for Lyme, people may be at increased risk, they noted.

"Public health authorities could use this to assess and evaluate changes in their region," said Dr. Gary P. Wormser, chief of infectious diseases at New York Medical College and Westchester Medical Center in Valhalla. "This could be of help in understanding the risk areas for humans."

The report, released Aug. 10, is published in the September issue of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.

For the study, a team led by Dr. Paul Mead, a CDC medical epidemiologist, used data from 46 states on human and canine Lyme disease prevalence.

Comparing the data, Mead's team found that when 1 percent or less of the dogs tested positive for Lyme disease, the risk of people becoming infected was low. However, when more than 5 percent of the dogs were infected, the risk to people was high.

A 5 percent (or higher) rate of positive blood test results in dogs "can be a sensitive but nonspecific marker of increased risk for human Lyme disease," the researchers wrote in a CDC news release. "Because dogs do not transmit infection directly to humans [or humans to dogs], this association reflects similar susceptibilities to tick-borne infection."

Sometimes, this level of canine infection "appears to anticipate increasing rates of human infection at the county level. Conversely, canine [prevalence of 1 percent or less] is associated with little to no local risk for human infection," Mead's group concluded.

Blood tests can detect a dog's exposure to the bacteria, even when no symptoms appear. "Most of the time the dogs appear to be asymptomatic, but they do develop clinical disease as well," Wormser said. As a result, they may develop problems walking and possibly heart or kidney complications.

Like humans, dogs with the disease can be treated with antibiotics. "There is also a vaccine for dogs," Wormser said. Symptoms may abate without treatment, but Lyme disease can leave recurrent lameness.

Commenting on the study, Phillip J. Baker, executive director of the American Lyme Disease Foundation, said, "You have to wonder if a dog is a good sentinel animal."

Their travel history and the use of tick repellent can affect estimates of Lyme disease prevalence in a specific area, he explained.

To prevent being bitten by the deer tick, which spreads Lyme disease, Baker advises checking your pet (and yourself) after walking through woods, fields or tall grass. Many dog owners also use tick repellent on their pets, he said.

Areas where cattle and goats are raised may have a reduced risk of Lyme disease, according to another study in the same journal issue.

Researchers from Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin in Germany found pastures containing livestock bore fewer ticks in general and fewer ticks carrying Lyme disease. Hikers passing through these pastures were 40 to 54 times less likely to contract Lyme disease than those walking through meadows or fallow land, they said.

It's possible that grazing animals reduce the tick's habitat or perhaps the ticks shed the Lyme disease bacteria when they feed on animals, the researchers said.

"Extensive landscape management that uses domestic ruminants not only serves to maintain cultural and natural heritage in Germany but also seems to confer a health benefit for hikers and others seeking recreation," the researchers wrote in the CDC news release.

More information

For more on Lyme disease, visit the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Copyright © 2011 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Syys 14, 2011 11:27

Koirat ja hevoset voivat sairastua Borreliosiin. Romaniassa tehdyssä selvityksessä seropositiivisuus vaihteli alueittain koirilla 6,52 - 46,15%. Hevosilla esiintyvyys oli keskimäärin 11.62%

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10 ... .2010.0254

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Serological Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Dogs and Horses from Distinct Areas in Romania

Timea Kiss,1
Daniel Cadar,1
Alexandra Florina Krupaci,1
Armela Bordeanu,1
Gheorghe Florinel Brudaşcă,2
Andrei Daniel Mihalca,3
Viorica Mircean,3
Lucia Gliga,1
Mirabela Oana Dumitrache,3 and
Marina Spînu1

Abstract

Lyme disease is a perfect model of the complex relationship between host, vector, and the vector-borne bacteria. Both dogs and horses in Romania are exposed to infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroreactivity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from different regions of Romania. 276 samples from dogs and 260 samples from horses located in different regions of Romania were analyzed by ELISA and IFA, respectively. The effect of several factors potentially affecting seroreactivity (location, age, gender, occupation, and vector exposition risk) was evaluated using Fisher's exact test (R 2.12.0). The overall prevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies was 6.52% (18/276) in dogs, with a significantly higher positivity (46.15%, 6/13, p=0.0005) recorded in a midcountry region.

Seroreactivity was correlated with occupation, with working dogs being more exposed. The results may indicate that Lyme borreliosis foci are restricted to small areas, but further studies on Borrelia prevalence in tick populations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In horses, a global seroprevalence of 11.92% (31/260) was observed. No correlations were found between positive results and age, sex, county, or occupation. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Romanian dogs and horses.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Maalis 30, 2012 14:30

Kahdella hevosella borrelia-bakteerin aiheuttama silmätulehdus (uveiitti). Bakteereita nähtiin silmänesteissä. (2012)


Vet Ophthalmol 2012(Feb)

Diagnosis of Borrelia-associated uveitis in two horses.

Priest HL, Irby NL, Schlafer DH, Divers TJ, Wagner B, Glaser AL, Chang YF, Smith MC

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

# DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2012.01000.x

Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease is a tick born spirochetal infection. Clinical signs of Lyme borreliosis are uncommon in horses, but when present they are often vague and nonspecific. In horses, Lyme borreliosis has been implicated in musculoskeletal, neurological, reproductive, and ocular disorders, including uveitis, but definitive diagnosis can be challenging as the causative agent is rarely isolated and serologic tests can be unreliable and do not confirm active disease. Here, we report two cases of equine uveitis associated with B. burgdorferi based on the identification of spirochetes within ocular fluids and confirmed with PCR testing.

The two cases illustrate some of the challenges encountered in the recognition and diagnosis of equine Lyme borreliosis. Although only one of many possible causes of equine uveitis, Lyme disease should be considered a differential diagnosis, especially in endemic areas. Given the possibility for false negative results of serum tests during uveitis associated with B. burgdorferi and the failure of such tests to confirm active infection, a combination of cytologic assessment, antibody, and/or PCR testing of ocular fluids may be worthwhile if the clinical suspicion for Lyme uveitis is high.
© 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Huhti 03, 2012 08:56

"Antibioottihoidon jälkeiset krooniset oireet ovat jatkuvan kiistelyn kohteena. Tutkijat selvittivät antibioottihoidon tehokkuutta Borrelioosia sairastavilla makaki apinoilla. Osalle apinoista annettiin 4-6kk infektiosta voimakas antibioottihoito. He saivat kuukauden suonensisäistä antibioottia (keftriaksoni) ja kaksi kuukautta doksisykliiniä suun kautta.

Antibioottihoidosta huolimatta apinoilta löydettiin pieniä määriä eläviä borrelia-bakteereita hoidon jälkeen. Tulokset osoittavat borrelia-bakteerin selviävän antibioottihoidoista. Vaikka borrelia-bakteerin on osoitettu tuhoutuvan antibioottihoidoilla koeputkiolosuhteissa, se näyttää omaavan ominaisuuksia jotka mahdollistavat sen selviämisen elimistössä antibiooteista huolimatta."

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchArt ... ne.0029914


Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Rhesus Macaques following Antibiotic Treatment of Disseminated Infection

Monica E. Embers1*, Stephen W. Barthold4, Juan T. Borda2, Lisa Bowers1, Lara Doyle3, Emir Hodzic4, Mary B. Jacobs1, Nicole R. Hasenkampf1, Dale S. Martin1, Sukanya Narasimhan5, Kathrine M. Phillippi-Falkenstein3, Jeanette E. Purcell3¤, Marion S. Ratterree3, Mario T. Philipp1*

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Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Huhti 23, 2012 14:12

BBC NEWS: Borrelioosiriski koirista luultua suurempi

Borrelioosi on yhä enenevässä määrin kasvava ongelma Britanniassa. Tutkijat selvittivät koirissa olevien punkkien määrää ja borreliakantajuutta. Borrelia-bakteereja on punkeissa luultua enemmän.

Eläinlääkäriasemille tuoduista 3 534 lemmikkikoirasta jopa 14,9%:lla oli punkkeja. Tutkimus tapahtui maalis-lokakuun välisenä aikana 2009. Borreliatestin tehtiin 739:lle koiralle. Koirista 2,3% oli saanut infektion.

Koska punkit ovat erittäin pieniä on niiden havaitseminen vaikeaa. Infektoituneesta punkista saatu taudinaiheuttaja alkaa useimmiten oireilla 2-30vrk:n kuluttua. Oireina voi esiintyä nuhaoireita, väsymystä, päänsärkyä, lihas/nivelkipuja, Myöhemmin voi ilmetä neurologisia, sydän, niveloireita jne. Bakteeri voi aiheuttaa myös halvauksia tai vakavia silmäoireita kuten näkökyvyn menetyksen.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-16706942

25 January 2012 Last updated at 00:45 GMT

Lyme disease risk from dogs 'higher than thought'

By Michelle Roberts Health reporter, BBC News

Ticks can transmit Lyme disease to humans
Health Explained: What is Lyme disease?

Ticks that can transmit Lyme disease may be more prevalent in the UK than realised, say researchers who have found out how many dogs harbour them.

Experts have suspected for some time that the UK has a growing problem with these tiny pests - rates of the disease have been creeping up in recent years.

In 2010 there were 953 reported cases in England and Wales.

Now, after doing random checks on over 3,500 dogs, Bristol University experts suspects the problem is even bigger.

Of the 3,534 pet dogs inspected at veterinary clinics in the UK between March and October 2009, 14.9% had ticks.

Of the 739 samples that could be tested, 2.3% turned out to be infected.

Without considerably better surveillance and routine diagnostic testing, Lyme disease is only likely to become more prevalent?

Faith Smith Lead researcher

From this, the researchers calculate that the expected prevalence of infected ticks on dogs is 0.5% or 481 infected ticks per 100,000 dogs.

And they say this suggests that the prevalence of this Borrelia infection in the UK tick population is considerably higher than previously thought, if you assume that the infection rate in dogs is a fair reflection of how many humans are likely to be infected.

Faith Smith, who led the research, told the journal Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: "Lyme disease appears to be a rapidly growing problem in the UK with important health and economic impacts in terms of loss of working hours and potential decrease in tourism to tick hotspots.

"Without considerably better surveillance and routine diagnostic testing, Lyme disease is only likely to become more prevalent.

"In particular, future warmer winters might well extend the period over which ticks are active seasonally, while growing wild reservoir host populations, such as deer, will allow the tick population to expand."

Easy to miss

A bite from an infected tick can take between two days and four weeks to show and anyone who has been bitten should look for a "bulls eye" type red rash appearing around the bite.

You may also experience flu-like symptoms, such as tiredness, headaches and muscle or joint pain.

Untreated, Lyme disease can spread to the brain, heart, and joints and in extreme can cause nerve damage, paralysis and blindness.

Ticks are very small - about the size of a poppy seed - and can easily be overlooked.

Most ticks do not carry the infection, but they should be removed promptly if found.

They can be removed with tweezers or special tick hooks, pulling gently upwards away from the skin.

Experts advise against squeezing or twisting the body of the tick, as this may cause the head and body to separate, leaving the head embedded in your skin.

People who develop a rash or other symptoms after a tick bite should consult their GP.

A spokeswoman from the Health Protection Agency said it was important that people realise the risks and remain "tick aware".

"They are out there in woodland areas." She said it was best to keep to footpaths and avoid long grass where possible when out walking and to cover up the skin.

Also, brush off clothes and pet's coats before returning indoors to remove any unattached ticks that might later seek a feed.

More on This Story
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Health Explained: What is Lyme disease? 24 MAY 2011, HEALTH

Related Internet links

Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Tick aware - Health Protection Agency

soijuv
Viestit: 3151
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

Viesti Kirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Touko 28, 2012 18:48

Terveet koirat altistettin punkeille joissa oli borrelia-bakteereita.
Pennut sairastuivat Borrelioosiin aikuisia koiria helpommin. Koirilla esiintyi halvauksia ja niveltulehduksia. Bakteeria löydettiin koirista oireiden hävittyä vielä vähintään vuoden ajan. Bakteeria löydettiin helpoimmin ihonäytteistä. Vasta-ainetestit tulivat positiivisiksi 4-6 viikon kuluttua puremasta. Arvot pysyivät korkeina koko seuranta-ajan joka oli 17kk.

Tutkimuksen alla useita muita eläinten Borrelioosia käsitteleviä tutkimuksia.


Experimental Lyme Disease in Dogs Produces Arthritis and Persistent Infection

Max J. G. Appel,
Sandra Allan,
Richard H. Jacobson,
Tsai Ling Lauderdale,
Yung Fu Chang,
Sang J. Shin,
John W. Thomford,
Rory J. Todhunter and
Brian A. Summers

+ Author Affiliations

James A. Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology, Department of Pathology, and Diagnostic Laboratory, New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis

Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Max J. Appel, James A. Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca. NY 14853.

Abstract

Lyme disease was reproduced in specific pathogen-free beagle dogs by exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks (Ixodes dammini). Seroconversion and disease frequency were higher after exposure to infected adult ticks than to infected nymphs.

Young pups developed clinical disease more readily than older dogs. The incubation period lasted 2-5 months. Acute recurrent lameness with fibrinopurulent arthritis was the dominant clinical sign. Dogs recovered but developed persistent mild polyarthritis. B. burgdorferi persisted in recovered dogs for at least 1 year.

Isolation of B. burgdorferi and detection by polymerase chain reaction was most successful from skin biopsies at the site of the tick bite. Antibody to B. burgdorferi antigens was first detected by ELISA and Western blots by 4-6 weeks after exposure. High serum levels persisted during 17 months of observation. In contrast to infection from ticks, inoculation of dogs with cultured B. burgdorferi resulted in seroconversion with a shorter duration of antibody persistence and no clinical disease.

Received August 17, 1992.
Revision received November 9, 1992.

© 1993 by The University of Chicago

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