PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

Asiantuntijana Soile Juvonen TTT

Valvojat: Bb, Sailairina, maranoma, Tiina

PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Su Kesä 14, 2009 19:18

"Borrelioosi on yleisin punkkien levittämä sairaus maailmassa. Euroopassa uusien tapausten määrän arvioidaan olevan vuosittain
65 000. (Tsekki 2009)." Eri puolilla maailmaa borrelioositapausten määrä on todennäköisesti huomattavasti arvioitua suurempi sillä tapauksia ei raportoida systemaattisesti. Vaikka tapaukset raportoitaisiinkin, olisi oikeaa tautitapausten määrää vaikea saada selville sillä tällä hetkellä ei ole vielä käytössä täysin luotettavaa borrelioositestiä (2009). Borreliabakteeri on lisäksi ns. "suuri matkija". Se kykenee aiheuttamaan oireita missä päin elimistöä tahansa. Sitä johtuen virhediagnoosien mahdollisuus on suuri.
Esim. "Amerikassa (Connecticut) 90 % lääkäreistä ei ilmoita uusista borrelioositapauksista lainkaan, vaikka tapaukset lain mukaan kuuluu raportoida." (USA 2007)


http://www.nhregister.com/site/index.cf ... 7515&rfi=8
Lyme disease under-reported
Abram Katz, Register Science Editor
06/10/2007

"I certainly know it's not going away. Is it going way up? It's here and it's a problem. What difference would mandatory monitoring make? We already know that Lyme disease is a problem," Feder said.



Curr Probl Dermatol. 2009;37:31-50. Epub 2009 Apr 8.
Epidemiology of Lyme Borreliosis.
Hubálek Z.
Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic.


Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent ixodid tick-borne human disease in the world, with an estimated 85,500 patients annually (underlying data presented in this review: Europe 65,500, North America 16,500, Asia 3,500, North Africa 10; approximate figures). This chapter summarizes the up-to-date knowledge about facts and factors important in the epidemiology of LB all over the world. Individual sections briefly describe geographic (latitudinal and altitudinal) distribution and incidence rates of LB in individual countries; seasonal distribution of the disease; effects of patients' age, sex, and profession; comparison of urban versus rural settings; weather-related effects on LB incidence; risk factors for LB acquisition by humans; and risk assessment. This chapter finishes by recommending a more thorough epidemiological surveillance for LB, including morbidity notification in some additional countries where it has not yet been fully implemented.


"Borrelioosi on Afrikassa yleisin bakteerin aiheuttama sairaus ja malarian jälkeen yleisin infektiotauti. Siitä huolimatta terveydenhuoltohenkilöstö ei juurikaan tunne sairautta. 1980-luvun lopulle saakka tautia pidettiin Afrikasssa harvinaisena. Esim. Senegalissa 11 % väestöstä sairastui borrelioosiin vuosina 1990 - 2003.

Hoitojen epäonnistumisia tapahtui usein sillä malarian hoitoon tarkoitetut lääkkeet eivät tehoa borrelioosiin. Ainoastaan tetrasykliini tehoaa. Diagnoosin saaminen on vaikeaa sillä bakteeria (Borrelia crocidurae) löydetään verenkierrosta vain kuumevaiheiden aikana."


http://www.afriquechos.ch/spip.php?article2488
Punkkien välityksellä leviävät taudit ovat koko ajan lisääntymässä Euroopassa. Osasyynä tähän on ilmaston lämpeneminen joka mahdollistaa punkkien leviämisen yhä pohjoisemmaksi
.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2009;2009:593232. Epub 2009 Jan 4.

Effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in europe. Gray JS, Dautel H, Estrada-Pena A, Kahl O, Lindgren E. School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin,Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and thereis speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vectorbiology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggestthat an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by anincreased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also bepartly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus.Increased winter activity of I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and aretrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics andpattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick populationbecoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability modelspredict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northernpermanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complexecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis andtick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as themain cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are requiredthat take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vectorabundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-bornedisease scenarios. PMID: 19277106 [PubMed - in process]

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Britannian punkeissa on ollut borreliabakteereita ainakin yli sadan vuoden ajan. Britannian luonnonhistoriallisen museossa on kokoelma punkkeja jo vuodesta 1896. Näytteitä oli kerätty eri puolilta Britanniaa. Niitä tutkittiin ja niistä löydettiin borreliabakteereja.
Lyme spirochetes have been found in ticks at the British Museum-from 1896 1: Med Vet Entomol. 1998 Jan;12(1):89-97.

Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. spirochaete DNA in Britishticks (Argasidae and Ixodidae) since the 19th century, assessed byPCR.Hubbard MJ, Baker AS, Cann KJ. Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Department ofBiochemistry, London, U.K. The distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the Lymeborreliosis agent, was surveyed in British ticks in the collection ofthe Natural History Museum, London. Alcohol-preserved specimens ofeight species of ticks known to attack humans were studied: Ixodesricinus, I. hexagonus, I. uriae, I. trianguliceps, Dermacentorreticulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Rhipicephalus sanguineus andArgas vespertilionis. The sample comprised all life stages andoriginated from a wide range of host species, collection dates(1896-1994) and geographical localities in England, Scotland andWales. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA, detected by a polymerase chainreaction that targeted the outer surface protein A gene, was found inall eight species.

The overall proportion of PCR-positive specimens ranged from 7.8% for I.hexagonus (mostly from mustelids and hedgehogs) to 98.3% for I. uriae(mostly from seabirds). Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found for thefirst time in the bat parasite A. vespertilionis (85.3%). The spirochaeteis newly recorded in British populations of I. trianguliceps (97.4%,mostly from voles, mice and shrews), D. reticulatus (12.5% from dog andman) and R. sanguineus (30% from dogs and human dwellings).

Of the fourtick species with larvae available for testing, examples of I. ricinus, I.uriae and A. vespertilionis were PCR positive, as were significantly morenymphs than adults of I. ricinus, I. hexagonus and A. vespertilionis.Analyses showed that B. burgdorferi s.l. has been consistently present inBritish tick populations since at least 1897. Ticks positive for B.burgdorferi s.l. DNA were collected in all months of the year, throughout Britain, and werefound on a wide range of mammal and bird species. PCR positivity does notprove vector or reservoir competence, but the use of archived material hasdemonstrated an extensive range of host-tick relationships involving B.burgdorferi s.l. in Britain for > 100 years.

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Punkkeja/puutiaisaivokuumevirusta sekä borrelibakteereita löytyi Tsekeistä vuoristosta yli kilometrin korkeudesta.


Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009 Jun 3; [Epub ahead of print]

Integration of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato into Mountain Ecosystems, Following a Shift in the Altitudinal Limit of Distribution of Their Vector, Ixodes ricinus (Krkonose Mountains, Czech Republic).

Danielova V, Daniel M, Schwarzova L, Materna J, Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Holubova J, Grubhoffer L, Kilian P.

1 National Institute of Public Health , Prague, Czech Republic .

Abstract The altitudinal shift in the limit of Ixodes ricinus occurrence above the previously established altitude of 750 m above sea level has been monitored over the long-term (2002-2008) in the Krkonose Mts. (Giant Mts.), the highest in the Czech Republic, along two vertical transects in their eastern and central parts (600-1020 and 600-1270 m). Ticks were collected by flagging three times annually, and examined individually by PCR or RT-PCR for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato or tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV).

A total of 5999 I. ricinus ticks were tested. TBEV RNA was detected in 26 ticks at up to 1140 m. Demonstration of TBEV in two larvae of I. ricinus indicates transovarial transmission. Similar infection rates in larvae and nymphs show vertical transmission in TBEV circulation to be very important under these mountain conditions. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was found at up to 1040-1065 m, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii up to 1080-1140 m, and Borrelia valaisiana up to 1270 m. The total infection rates of nymphs and larvae were 7.3% and 2%, respectively. B. garinii was the most prevalent (37%), followed by B. afzelii (29%), B. burgdorferi s.s. (11%), and B. valaisiana (9%). Double to quadruple coinfections were detected in 32% of the infected ticks, most frequently B. garinii/B. afzelii. Predominance of B. garinii and B. valaisiana over B. afzelii suggests that small passerine birds moving on the ground are responsible for permanent local populations of I. ricinus in mountain localities with low numbers of small terrestrial mammals. The detection of B. burgdorferi sensu lato and TBEV in host-seeking larvae indicates an autochthonic infection. Upon analysis of the local climate we consider climate warming to be responsible for the spreading of ticks and tick-transmitted pathogens to higher altitudes.

PMID: 19492952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Viimeksi muokannut soijuv päivämäärä To Kesä 10, 2010 23:08, muokattu yhteensä 2 kertaa
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Elo 31, 2009 10:22

"Borreliabakteereita on esiintynyt Pohjois-Amerikassa jo tuhansia vuosia ennen kuin eurooppalaiset muuttivat sinne."

Phylogeography of Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States reflects multiple independent Lyme disease emergence events

1. Anne Gatewood Hoena,1,
2. Gabriele Margosb,
3. Stephen J. Benta,
4. Maria A. Diuk-Wassera,
5. Alan Barbourc,
6. Klaus Kurtenbachb,2 and
7. Durland Fisha,3

+ Author Affiliations

1.
aDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520;
2.
bDepartment of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, United Kingdom; and
3.
cDepartments of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and Medicine and Pacific-Southwest Center of Excellence, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697

*

↵1 Present address: Children's Hospital Informatics Program, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, 1 Autumn Street, Boston, MA 02215.
*

↵2Deceased March 26, 2009.

Abstract

Since its first description in coastal Connecticut in 1976, both the incidence of Lyme disease and the geographic extent of endemic areas in the US have increased dramatically. The rapid expansion of Lyme disease into its current distribution in the eastern half of the US has been due to the range expansion of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, upon which the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi is dependent for transmission to humans.

In this study, we examined the phylogeographic population structure of B. burgdorferi throughout the range of I. scapularis-borne Lyme disease using multilocus sequence typing based on bacterial housekeeping genes. We show that B. burgdorferi populations from the Northeast and Midwest are genetically distinct, but phylogenetically related.

Our findings provide strong evidence of prehistoric population size expansion and east-to-west radiation of descendent clones from founding sequence types in the Northeast. Estimates of the time scale of divergence of northeastern and midwestern populations suggest that B. burgdorferi was present in these regions of North America many thousands of years before European settlements.

We conclude that B. burgdorferi populations have recently reemerged independently out of separate relict foci, where they have persisted since precolonial times.

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/08/13/0903810106

Full Text:
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/ ... 6.full.pdf
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Elo 31, 2009 12:54

CDC:n viimeisin raportti v. 2008 esim. borrelioositapausten määristä USA:ssa:

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5831a5.htm
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Syys 02, 2009 17:40

Puola 2009. Puolassa tutkittiin maassa esintyvissä punkeissa esiintyviä taudinaiheuttajia B. burgdorferi, A. hagocytophilum, B. microti.

13,4% puolalaisista punkeista kantoi yhtä taudinaiheuttajaa, 2,16% kahta tai useampaa taudinaiheuttajaa.


Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009 Jun;16(1):151-8. Coincidence of three pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasmaphagocytophilum and Babesia microti) in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Lublinmacroregion. Wojcik-Fatla A, Szymanska J, Wdowiak L, Buczek A, Dutkiewicz J. Department of Occupational Biohazards, Institute of Agricultural Medicine,Lublin, Poland. aaem@galen.imw.lublin.pl Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses,bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humansand in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum andBabesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in south-eastern Poland and to estimatethe degree of infection with each of the examined pathogens depending on thedevelopmental stage of ticks (nymph, female, male). The study material were1,620 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 5 sites in the Lublin macroregion,showing the presence of various forest biotopes.

The PCR method was used toidentify DNA for B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum, and the nested-PCR - forB. microti.


In 1,368 (84.44%) of the 1,620 examined ticks no infections werefound. Single infections were noted in 217 ticks (13.4%) and coinfections weredetected in 35 specimens (2.16%). The most common was the coincidence of A.phagocytophilum with B. microti (17 infected specimens, 1.05% of the totalnumber). A similar result was obtained for the coincidence of B. burgdorferi s.l. with A. phagocytophilum (15 infected specimens, 0.93% of the total number).Only 2 cases of the coinfection of B. burgdorferi s. l. with B. microti, whichequals 0.12% of the total number, were found. Infection with all 3 pathogens wasidentified in only 1 female tick (0.06% of the total number). http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... rlinksPMID: 19630205 [PubMed - in process]
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Syys 22, 2009 06:42

Borrelioosi lisääntynyt huimasti Virossa

Julkaistu 26.08.2008 klo 08:46, päivitetty 01.11.2008 klo 03:55

Kuva: AP Graphics Bank

Virossa punkkien aiheuttamat borrelioositartunnat ovat lisääntyneet tänä vuonna 90 prosenttia. Lauha talvi ja suuri ilmankosteus ovat luoneet suotuisat olosuhteet punkeille, kirjoittaa Eesti Päevaleht.
Sairastuneita on hakeutunut lääkäriin puolisen tuhatta eli lähes kaksinkertainen määrä viime vuoteen verrattuna. Virolaisen epidemiologin Kuulo Katsarin mukaan punkkeja tavataan huomattavasti enemmän kuin vielä pari vuotta sitten. Nyt borrelioosia levittäviä punkkeja on jo kaupunkien puistoissa.
Suurin todennäköisyys saada punkista tartunta Virossa on Saarenmaalla, Pärnumaalla ja Itä-Virumaalla.

Borrelioosiin ei ole rokotetta, mutta sairautta hoidetaan antibiooteilla.

YLE Uutiset

http://www.ilab.fi/forum/Forum4/HTML/004710.html
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Loka 13, 2009 15:28

Seropositiivisia tapauksia löydetään Turkista korkean sairastumisriskin alueilta 6 - 44 %.

Mikrobiyol Bul. 2009 Jul;43(3):487-92. [An overlooked disease of tick bites: Lyme disease] [Article in Turkish] Bulut C, Tufan ZK, Altun S, Altinel E, Kinikli S, Demiroz AP. SB Ankara Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Enfeksiyon Hastaliklari ve KlinikMikrobiyoloji Klinigi, Ankara. cmlbulut@yahoo.com

The exact prevalence of Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi is unknownin Turkey. However, B. burgdorferi seropositivity ranges between 6-44% amonghigh risk groups. B. burgdorferi is transmitted to humans by the bite ofinfected ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes, which may be seen throughout ourcountry. Since the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is attractingattentions to tick bites more than ever in Turkey, the patients with tick bitesare followed up more cautiously and have been referred to central hospitals. Inthis study 4 patients who were referred to our center with prediagnosis of CCHFbut later appeared to be Lyme cases, were presented. All of the cases werewomen, age ranging between 25-67 years old. The patients were from areas wherethere is high risk of CCHF. CCHF were ruled out in these patients by agentspecific polymerase chain reaction and IgM results. All of the patients wereclinically diagnosed as Lyme disease since they had lesions compatible witherythema migrans. B. burgdorferi total antibodies investigated by ELISA (ZeusScientific Inc., USA) were found positive in all patients. Since Western blotmethod could not be performed, positive serologic results have not be confirmed.However, the diagnosis of Lyme disease was done according to Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) criteria and all of the cases have recoveredfollowing treatment with antibiotics (cefuroxime axetil or sulbactam ampicillinor amoxicillin clavulanic acid). When the increase in the incidence ofarthropod-borne infections in our country is considered, it should be noted thattick-bite cases should also be evaluated in terms of Lyme disease besides CCHF.Differential diagnosis of these infections is of critical value since earlyappropriate therapy is important to prevent the development of seriouscomplications in both of the disease settings. Publication Types:English Abstract http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... rlinksPMID: 19795626 [PubMed - in process]
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » La Joulu 19, 2009 11:17

"Saksan, Münchenin, mikrobiologit tutkivat metsässä punkkeja. He ovat pukeutuneet päästä varpaisiin valkoisiin pukuihin ja maskeihin. He pelkäävät punkkeja koska ne välittävät vaarallista aivokuumetta aiheuttavaa virusta sekä borreliabakteeria. Tautitapaukset lisääntyvät ilmastonmuutoksen johdosta."

http://www.spiegel.de/international/ger ... 08,00.html


?A German Armed Forces special unit wearing snowy white protective suits complete with hoods and respiratory masks hacks its way through the Bavarian undergrowth. The ghostly figures are here to carry out a reconnaissance mission. Their enemy has eight legs and a dangerous weapon.

The men are from the Armed Forces Institute of Microbiology in Munich. Originally, the organization was founded to defend against exotic epidemics and biological terrorist attacks, but its members also regularly head out to hunt for domestic ticks. The bloodsucking parasites, carriers of dangerous illnesses such as tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme disease, pose a danger to the suited soldiers. Meanwhile, the rest of the population are at risk, too.?

http://www.spiegel.de/international/ger ... 08,00.html
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Su Joulu 20, 2009 20:29

Ilmaston lämpeneminen lisää tautitapauksia:

Chapter 12 of The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change On The U.S...from the EPA

Tick-Borne Diseases
Both Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease are considered to be public health problems in the United States. Although these two diseases are spread by different species of ticks, some overlap exists in their geographic distribution (Figure 12-5). Because tick populations appear to be limited by the size of their intermediate host populations (such as white-tailed deer), the spread of tick-borne diseases may be particularly sensitive to any change that may affect the geographic range of these hosts and, consequently, the range of the vector, or carrier.
In addition to the presence of the host, tick populations also depend upon the seasonality of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and vegetation. Optimally, climate must be warm enough to promote progression through the life cycles, humid enough to prevent the drying out of eggs, and cold enough in winter to initiate the resting stage.
As for many tick-borne diseases, the opportunity for a tick to acquire the infective agent from an infected animal is limited to the short period when the level of the agent in the blood of the host is high enough for the tick to receive an infective dose. Higher temperatures may increase the amount of the agent (the organism that is transmitted by the carrier, such as a virus) and the time it remains lodged on the host animal. Both these mechanisms would increase the rate of infection of the carrier. However, although higher temperatures may favor the presence of the agent, there is some indication that they could disrupt the life cycle of some tick species. In these cases, warmer temperatures would reduce both tick survival and the spread of diseases they carry.

http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/docs/001 ... 1-327.html

Here is another excerpt from The Sunshine Project. We are being conditioned to think that the only possible reason for the spread of Lyme and other diseases..is due to supposed global warming. I never hear anything being said about how the organisms and insects themselves can evolve to adapt to different climatic regions. This can occur naturally or can be due to genetic engineering intervention. In other words we don't need the climate to change for disease to spread to areas previously not inhabited by a specific vector.And then ...as many suspect....Lyme may not even be limited to a specific vector. So...blaming the spread of Lyme and other diseases on global warming may be very oversimplified

Could Lyme disease have been field tested in a specific region and then accidently expanded to other parts of the country and world due to the reasons stated below?I just think that we need to keep all of this in mind when listening to the news and other media reports. Concern for our environment is crucial but we musn't be frightened into accepting politcal agendas out of fear. Part of the Global Warming "movement is to create global taxes and global laws. It is also a very lucrative market for selling everything under the sun that is considered "green". Are more products being created form earth materials to fuel the green movement?

Insect fighters
The idea to use insects to deliver biological warfare agents is not new. Insects were systematically explored as a mechanism to spread a variety of diseases (e.g. plague) in the World War II Japanese BW program and the postwar US program. In many cases, such insect vector BW was dismissed as too complicated and unreliable. But genetic engineering may open a new way to use insects as weapons. In the same way as genetically engineered plants may be misused as ?food weapons?, insects may be engineered to produce toxic compounds and deliver them through their natural feeding habit ? e.g. in the saliva of mosquitoes. Again, these compounds may exert a broad range of possible effect, from non-life-threatening illness to sterility to widespread fatal illness in a target population.
Techniques to use insects to deliver vaccines have already been developed and patented. [38] The idea to develop what one company calls ?flying syringes? is based on the hope of circumventing costly vaccination programmes in which every individual must be inoculated by trained medical personnel. Genetically engineered mosquitoes or other biting insects could instead deliver minute quantities of vaccine through the saliva every time they bite. The relevant techniques are still in their infancy. In comparison to genetic engineering of crops, for example, insects lag behind; but within several years, development of insect combatants may become a real possibility.

It is, however, questionable, whether genetically engineered insects may really become a weapon of choice. It will be nearly impossible to control these insects and limit their activity to the target country. Even if insects are choosen that are thought to be restricted to certain climate conditions, natural evolution and/or global climate change may rapidly overcome this restriction. State sponsored biowarfare programs tend to be very concerned about restricting unintended distribution of the biowarfare agent ? most typical bacterial biowarfare agents are not contagious ? and will thus hardly engage in the flying syringe concept."

http://www.sunshine-project.org/publica ... /bk12.html
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Joulu 25, 2009 17:58

Linnuilla on aiempaa luultua suurempi merkitys borrelioosin leviämisessä. Lintujen mukana punkit/borreliabakteerit leviävät laajoille alueille - rajoista välittämättä. Borreliabakteeri kykenee aiheuttamaan lukuisia terveysongelmia esim. keskushermostossa, nivelissä ja esim. sydämen rytmihäiriöitä.


Birds Play an Important Role in the Spread of Lyme Disease, Yale Study Finds
By Yale School of Public Health
Dec 23, 2009 - 10:52:15 AM

http://www.healthnewsdigest.com/news/Di ... inds.shtml

(HealthNewsDigest.com) - New Haven, Conn. ? The range of Lyme disease is spreading in North America and it appears that birds play a significant role by transporting the Lyme disease bacterium over long distances, a new study by the Yale School of Public Health has found. The study appears online in the journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment.

Researchers analyzed published records and concluded that at least 70 species of North American birds are susceptible to infection by black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis), the principal vector of the Lyme disease bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi). The evidence also suggests that these bird species are dispersing infected ticks into areas that had previously been free of the disease, such as Canada.

Lyme disease bacterium is usually associated with small mammals such as mice and squirrels. Immature ticks (in the larval and nymphal stages) become infected with the bacterium when they feed on these mammals. During subsequent blood meals, an infected tick transmits the infection to other hosts, including humans. White-tailed deer?while playing an important role in maintaining and spreading tick populations?are a biological dead end for the bacterium because its blood is immune to infection.

Birds, however, are not immune and numerous species get infected and are capable of transmitting the pathogen onto ticks, the researchers found. What remains to be seen is whether the B. burgdorferi strains that can infect birds can also cause disease in humans. If so, the role of birds in the epidemiology of Lyme disease could be profound.

?Birds are often overlooked in Lyme disease studies,? said Robert Brinkerhoff, a post-doctoral student in Maria A. Diuk-Wasser?s lab at the School of Public Health and first author of the paper, ?but they may be playing a key role in its rapid expansion.?

The researchers found that I. scapularis most consistently parasitizes bird species such as thrushes, brown thrashers, wrens and wood warblers. The authors estimate that as few as three individual birds are needed to infect one black-legged tick with the bacterium.

Lyme disease can cause severe health problems, including arthritis, nervous system abnormalities and irregular heart rhythm. It is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, with the number of reported human infections doubling between 1992 and 2006.

Other authors of the paper include research assistant Corrine M. Folsom-O?Keefe, Kimberly Tsao, a Ph.D. student and Maria Diuk-Wasser, assistant professor, all at the Yale School of Public Health.
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Tammi 20, 2010 19:58

Metsä- ja peltotyöntekijät altistuvat punkin puremille muita ammattiryhmiä useammin. Puolalaisen tutkimuksen mukaan 12,8 %:lla oli borreliavasta-aine IgM ja 25 %:lla IgG koholla. Toimistotyöntekijöillä vastaavat arvot olivat 10 % ja 13,7 %.


Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009 Dec;16(2):257-61.
S.eroepidemiological study of Lyme borreliosis among forestry workers in southern Poland.

Buczek A, Rudek A, Bartosik K, Szymanska J, Wojcik-Fatla A.

Department of Occupational Biohazards, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090 Lublin, Poland. aaem@galen.imw.lublin.pl.

Forestry workers are a professional group particularly exposed to tick-borne infections; however, continuous monitoring of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in this group enables faster diagnosis and more effective treatment for borreliosis. A group of 1,155 forestry workers from six forest inspectorates in southern Poland were examined with the immunoenzymatic method (ELISA test).

The general level of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies was 12.8 % in IgM class, and 25 % in IgG class. Markedly more seropositive results were found in the group of fieldworkers (13.8 % - IgM and 25.0 % - IgG) than in office workers (10.0 % - IgM and 13.7 % - IgG). The highest proportions of infections both in IgM and IgG class (17.4 % and 34.8 %, respectively) were recorded in the group of persons over 50 years of age, the lowest - in the group of workers younger than 30 (IgM - 13.0 %, IgG - 14.1%).

Significant differences in the level of seropositive results in IgG class were related to the workers' gender - in women the percentage was 9.8 %, in men - 28.1 %. It was found that in the studied region of southern Poland, considered to be non-endemic, borreliosis occurs as a health risk to forestry workers.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20047259 [PubMed - in process]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Huhti 06, 2010 09:49

New Havenin yliopisto teki laajamittaisen tutkimuksen jossa selvitettiin borreliabakteerin esiintymistä Connecticutin alueen (USA) punkeissa. Merkittävää oli että punkkeja kerättiin puistoista, leikkikentiltä ja koulujen piha-alueilta eli alueilta joissa ihmiset viettävät paljon aikaansa. Borreliabakteereita löydettiin suurimmasta osasta punkkeja, 51 - 96 %. Tri Eva Sapi esitteli tutkimuksen ILADSin konferenssissa v. 2009 (ilads.org).

Research Eva Sapi presented at the ILADS Conference 2009


Survey of Borrelia burgdorferi infection rate in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Southern Connecticut in 2007-2008 .

1Cedric Mpoy B.S, 1Datar Aka BS, 1Bien-Aim H. Lubraine BS, 1Pabbati Namrata MS, Georgina Scholl M.D, Ph.D, and 1Eva Sapi Ph.D.

Lyme and Tick-borne Diseases Research Group, Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT 06516 USA, 2 Fairfield County Municipal Deer Management Alliance, Georgetown, CT 06829

In the Fall of 2007, the University of New Haven begun one of the largest tick collection and Borrelia burgdorferi testing surveys in US; testing over 50 sites in Fairfield County CT. The uniqueness of this survey is that the tick collection is being performed at school yards, public parks and playgrounds, The collection sites were designed to represent sites where children or families have outside activity to evaluate the risk of exposure of our children to tick borne diseases. Ixodes scapularis (deer ticks) were collected for ~90 minutes, within a few yard perimeters from these playgrounds at each site, by at least 4 people using the dragging method. The live deer ticks were transported to the University of New Haven where further analyzed for the presence of Ixodes scapularis (control) and Borrelia burgdorferi DNAs using the standard and real time polymerase chain reaction as well as direct sequencing methods.

As of October 2009, the University of New Haven has collected ~2000 deer tick samples and tested ~1500 samples for Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) infection. The overall Bb infection rate was 72%, ranging from 51%-94% in 2007 and 90%, ranging from 88%-96%. Our result strongly suggests that there is a very significant exposure risk for tick-borne infections around school yards and playgrounds in Fairfield County CT.
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja Sailairina » Ti Huhti 13, 2010 19:18

http://www.kaypahoito.fi/web/kh/suositu ... s/hoi13020


Borrelioosi (Lymen tauti)

Epidemiologia

- Borrelia siirtyy ihmiseen hyönteisen syljessä ja ulosteissa.
Sailairina
 
Viestit: 684
Liittynyt: Ma Tammi 19, 2009 16:04
Paikkakunta: Kaarina

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Touko 13, 2010 11:17

Borrelioosia esiintyy Brasilian Amazonin alueen ihmisissä:

Antibody reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in patients from the Brazilian Amazon region with skin diseases not related to Lyme disease

Authors:
Santos, Mônica1; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Rodrigo2; Lobo, Rogério3; Talhari, Sinésio1

Source: International Journal of Dermatology, Volume 49, Number 5, May 2010 , pp. 552-556(5)

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

Abstract:

In the present study, we report the occurrence of borreliosis in patients from the Brazilian Amazonic region. Nineteen (7.2%) out of 270 dermatological patients with different skin diseases (no one with clinical Lyme disease), tested positive by ELISA for Borrelia burgdorferi. Serum samples from 15 out of the 19 ELISA-positive patients were further evaluated by Western blot. Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi specific IgG was confirmed in eight (53.3%) out of the 15 patients. All eight patients with ELISA and Western blot positive reactions were treated with doxycycline, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. One of them had clinical manifestations of colagenosis and was sent to the Department of Internal Medicine for further investigation. Data presented here suggested that borreliosis ?lato sensu? is in the Brazilian Amazon region.

Document Type:
Research article

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04393.x

Affiliations: 1: Dermatology Division, Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas (FMT-AM), Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil 2: Cellular and Molecular Immunology Lab., Núcleo de Doenças Infecciosas, and Pathology Department, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo state, Brazil 3: Clinical Analysis Laboratory, FMT-AM, Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja derealisti » To Touko 13, 2010 17:50

Tässäpä euroopan puutiaisaivokuume-esiintyvyys vuodelta 2005 saksalaisen käsityksen mukaan.

http://www.zeckenbiss-borreliose.de/europa.jpg
derealisti
 
Viestit: 33
Liittynyt: Pe Joulu 11, 2009 14:45

ViestiKirjoittaja Sailairina » Ke Touko 19, 2010 15:01

Etelä-Norjassa kerättiin neljällä paikkakunnalla punkkeja:
- 210 toukkaa/larvaa
- 1130 nymfiä
- 449 aikuista punkkia

Borreliaa esiintyi Farsundin punkeissa 31,3 %:lla, Mandel 25,2 %, Søgne 22,3 % ja Tromøy 22,1 %.

Borrelia alalajeja niistä löytyi seuraavasti:
- B. afzelii 61.6 %
- B. garinii 23.4 %
- B. burgdorferi sensu stricto 10.6 %
- B. valaisiana 4.5 % (jota löydettiin Norjasta ensimmäistä kertaa)
- sekainfektioita 0,3 %

Nyt saatiin korkeammat esiintyvyyslukemat kuin mitä aiemmin on Pohjoismaisissa tutkimuksissa raportoitu.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20429719

Prevalence and genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southern Norway

Abstract
Abstract From April to October 2007, host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 4 locations in southern Norway: Farsund, Mandal, Søgne and Tromøy. Two hundred and ten larvae, 1130 nymphs and 449 adults were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. The total percentage of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphal and adult ticks was determined to be 31.3% in Farsund, 25.2% in Mandal, 22.3% in Søgne and 22.1% in Tromøy. Larvae were pooled in groups of 10 before analysis, and Borrelia infection was detected in 1 of the 21 larvae pools. B. burgdorferi s.l. were genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S)-rrl (23S) intergenetic spacer. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. afzelii (61.6%), followed by B. garinii (23.4%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (10.6%). B. valaisiana (4.5%) was identified in Norwegian ticks for the first time. Mixed infections were observed in 0.3% of the infected ticks. A higher prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in the present study than what has been reported in previous Nordic studies.

PMID: 20429719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Sailairina
 
Viestit: 684
Liittynyt: Ma Tammi 19, 2009 16:04
Paikkakunta: Kaarina

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Touko 28, 2010 12:17

Pohjois-Irakissa palveluksessa ollut sotilas sai borreliatartunnan:

Mil Med. 2010 May;175(5):367-9.
An unexpected case of Lyme disease in a soldier serving in northern Iraq.

Fisher JB, Curtis CE.

Tropic Lightning TMC, Bldg. 677, Schofield Barracks, HI 96857, USA.

Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia
burgdorferi. Cases have been reported across the United States, Canada, and Europe. Additional cases have been described in other parts of the world including Japan, Mexico, and Turkey. We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20486511 [PubMed - in process]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Su Touko 30, 2010 09:41

Hollanti 2010: Liskoissa on tunnetusti harvoin borreliabakteereita. Hollannin hiekkaliskoistakin niitä löytyi harvoin. Sitä vastoin niistä löytyi usein riketsioita (R.helvetica).

Role of sand lizards in the ecology of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases in the Netherlands

Ellen Tijsse et al

Parasites & Vectors 2010, 3:42

doi:10.1186/1756-3305-3-42

http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/3/1/42

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Lizards are considered zooprophylactic for almost all Borrelia burgdorferi species, and act as dilution hosts in parts of North America. Whether European lizards significantly reduce the ability of B. burgdorferi to maintain itself in enzootic cycles, and consequently decrease the infection rate of Ixodes ricinus ticks for B. burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens in Western Europe is not clear.
Results

Ticks were collected from sand lizards, their habitat (heath) and from the adjacent forest. DNA of tick-borne pathogens was detected by PCR followed by reverse line blotting. Tick densities were measured at all four locations by blanket dragging. Nymphs and adult ticks collected from lizards had a significantly lower (1.4%) prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, compared to questing ticks in heath (24%) or forest (19%). The prevalence of Rickettsia helvetica was significantly higher in ticks from lizards (19%) than those from woodland (10%) whereas neither was significantly different from the prevalence in ticks from heather (15%). The prevalence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp in heather (12%) and forest (14%) were comparable, but significantly lower in ticks from sand lizards (5.4%). The prevalence of Babesia spp in ticks varied between 0 and 5.3 %. Tick load of lizards ranged from 1 - 16. Tick densities were ~ 5-fold lower in the heather areas than in woodlands at all four sites.
Conclusions

Despite their apparent low reservoir competence, the presence of sand lizards had insignificant impact on the B. burgdorferi s.l. infection rate of questing ticks. In contrast, sand lizards might act as reservoir hosts for R. helvetica. Remarkably, the public health risk from tick-borne diseases is approximately five times lower in heather than in woodland, due to the low tick densities in heather.
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Kesä 03, 2010 21:51

2010: Ensimmäiset testeillä vahvistetut borrelioositapaukset Turkissa:

Mikrobiyol Bul. 2010 Jan;44(1):133-9.
[First report of three culture confirmed human Lyme cases in Turkey]

[Article in Turkish]

Polat E, Turhan V, Aslan M, Musellim B, Onem Y, Ertugrul B.

Istanbul Universitesi Cerrahpasa Tip Fakultesi, Mikrobiyoloji ve Klinik
Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dali, Istanbul.

Lyme disease which is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is a
multisystemic disease that involves skin, joints, cardiovascular and central
nervous system, leading to chronic inflammatory response and late complications.
First lyme cases have been reported after 1990's in Turkey and the spirochete
was isolated from the tick vectors. In this case series three human Lyme cases
confirmed with not only serological tests but also growth in
Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium were presented for the first time in Turkey. Two
of these three cases were residents in Istanbul while the third one has acquired
the infection in USA (imported case). First case was a previously healthy 46
years old male, admitted to the state hospital with the complaints of diarrheae,
chills, nausea, vomiting, cough, sputum production and widespread myalgias. The
patient was a chronic alcohol consumer with a history of frequent visits to the
forest areas. The laboratory test results revealed hepatonephritis-like clinical
picture and pulmonary involvement. Leptospira IgM and Borrelia IgM antibodies
were detected in the serum by ELISA and both of the agents were isolated in the
blood cultures of the patient. This case was then diagnosed as Lyme disease with
leptospirosis co-infection. The second case was a 32 years old female who
suffered from Bell's palsy for the last 15 days. Cranial magnetic resonance
imaging showed a nodular lesion at globus pallidus. Since the patient had a
history of tick-bite, further testing was done for Lyme disease. Borrelia IgM
and IgG antibodies were found negative, however, Borrelia was isolated from the
cerebrospinal fluid sample. The third patient was a 68 years old female who had
recently travelled to USA and exposed to a tick-bite in a recreational area. She
suffered from nausea, vomiting, myalgia and cutaneous lesions compatible with
erythema chronicum migrans. Samples taken from the skin lesions revealed growth
of Borrelia. As far as the current literature is concerned, these were the first
three culture proven cases of Borrelia in Turkey. These three cases supported
the presence of Lyme disease in Turkey and indicated that the disease could
present itself in various clinical pictures.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20455410 [PubMed - in process]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Kesä 11, 2010 09:16

Kiinan jyrsijöissä borrelia-bakteereita. Vähintän kahta eri alalajia löydettiin. (2010)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/10/157

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from Gansu, northwestern China

Fang Zhang, Zhanwei Gong, Jijun Zhang and Zengjia Liu

BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:157doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-157
Published: 28 May 2010

Abstract (provisional)

Background

Lyme disease is a multi-organ infection disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Lyme disease was first documented in north-east China in 1986. Since then more than 20 provinces in China were confirmed the existence of nature foci of Lyme disease. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from Gansu Province for the first time. Result: A total of 140 rodents of 7 species were examined for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. by nested-PCR and culture isolation. The overall infection rate was 22.86%. Two rodent species most frequently trapped were responsible for all positive. 3 strains were isolated from Apodemus agrarius, which belonged to B. garinii, 1 strain isolated from Rattus losea was identified as B. afzelii. Conclusion: The study firstly showed the role of rodents in maintaining the pathogen of Lyme disease in the environment from Gansu Province and there existed at least two genotypes of Lyme disease spirochaetes in rodents .
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Loka 06, 2010 09:57

Karibian saarilla raportoitu ensimmäiset borrelia-bakteerin aiheuttamat ihomuutokset. (2010)

Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;16(10):1615-7.
Erythema Migrans-like Illness among Caribbean Islanders.

Sharma A, Jaimungal S, Basdeo-Maharaj K, Chalapathi Rao AV, Teelucksingh S.

University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Erythema migrans is the skin manifestation of Lyme disease and southern
tick-associated rash illness. Neither disease is found in the Caribbean. We
report 4 cases of erythema migrans of a possible emerging clinical entity,
Caribbean erythma migrans-like illness.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 20875293 [PubMed - in process]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Marras 24, 2010 13:56

Serbialaisista punkeista löytyi useita borrelia-bakteerin alalajeja sekä joitakin lisäinfektioita (2010)

Parasite. 2010 Sep;17(3):211-7.
Coexistence of emerging bacterial pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia.

Tomanovic S, Radulovic Z, Masuzawa T, Milutinovic M.

Laboratory for Medical Arachnoentomology, Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses,
Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, 11129 Belgrade, Dr
Subotica 4, POB 102, 11129 Belgrade, Serbia. snezanat@imi.bg.ac.rs

The list of tick-borne pathogens is long, varied and includes viruses, bacteria,
protozoa and nematodes. As all of these agents can exist in ticks, their
co-infections have been previously reported. We studied co-infections of
emerging bacterial pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma
phagocytophilum and Francisella tularensis) in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Serbia.
Using PCR technique, we detected species-specific sequences, rrf-rrl rDNA
intergenic spacer for B. burgdorferi s.l., p44/msp2 paralogs for A.
phagocytophilum, and the 17 kDa lipoprotein gene, TUL4, for F. tularensis,
respectively, in total DNA extracted from the ticks. Common infections with more
than one pathogen were detected in 42 (28.8%) of 146 infected I. ricinus ticks.
Co-infections with two pathogens were present in 39 (26.7%) of infected ticks.
Simultaneous presence of A. phagocytophilum and different genospecies of B.
burgdorferi s.l. complex was recorded in 16 ticks, co-infection with different
B. burgdorferi s. l. genospecies was found in 15 ticks and eight ticks harbored
mixed infections with F. tularensis and B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Less
common were triple pathogen species infections, detected in three ticks, one
infected with A. phagocytophilum / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae and two
infected with F. tularensis / B. burgdorferi s.s. / B. lusitaniae. No mixed
infections of A. phagocytophilum and F. tularensis were detected.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 21073144 [PubMed - in process]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Marras 24, 2010 14:12

Hollannin metsissä esiintyy punkkeja yleisesti, erityisesti sellaisilla paikoilla joissa on runsaasti maanpeitettä esim. lehtiä, sammalta jne. (2010)

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010 Nov 17; [Epub ahead of print]
Geographic and Temporal Variations in Population Dynamics of Ixodes ricinus and
Associated Borrelia Infections in The Netherlands.

Gassner F, van Vliet AJ, Burgers SL, Jacobs F, Verbaarschot P, Hovius EK, Mulder
S, Verhulst NO, van Overbeek LS, Takken W.

1 Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research Centre ,
Wageningen, The Netherlands .

Abstract In a countrywide investigation of the ecological factors that
contribute to Lyme borreliosis risk, a longitudinal study on population dynamics
of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus and their infections with Borrelia burgdorferi
sensu lato (s.l.) was undertaken at 24 sites in The Netherlands from July 2006
to December 2007. Study sites were mature forests, dune vegetations, or new
forests on land reclaimed from the sea. Ticks were sampled monthly and nymphal
ticks were investigated for the presence of Borrelia spp. I. ricinus was the
only tick species found. Ticks were found in all sites, but with significant
spatial and temporal variations in density between sites. Peak densities were
found in July and August, with lowest tick numbers collected in December and
January. In some sites, questing activities of I. ricinus nymphs and adults were
observed in the winter months. Mean monthly Borrelia infections in nymphs varied
from 0% to 29.0% (range: 0%-60%), and several sites had significantly higher
mean nymphal Borrelia infections than others. Four genospecies of Borrelia
burgdorferi s.l. were found, with B. afzelii being dominant at most sites.
Borrelia infection rates in nymphal ticks collected in July, September, and
November 2006 were significantly higher (23.7%, p < 0.01) than those in the
corresponding months of 2007 (9.9%). The diversity in Borrelia genospecies
between sites was significantly different (p < 0.001). Habitat structure (tree
cover) was an effective discriminant parameter in the determination of Borrelia
infection risk, as measured by the proportion of nymphal ticks infected with B.
burgdorferi s.l. Thickness of the litter layer and moss cover were positively
related to nymphal and adult tick densities. The study shows that
Borrelia-infected ticks are present in many forest and dune areas in The
Netherlands and suggests that in such biotopes, which are used for a wide
variety of recreational activities, the infection risk is high.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 21083369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Marras 30, 2010 20:42

Punkkien välittämät taudit ovat yleisiä myös kehitysmaissa joissa ne aiheuttavat lukuisia kuolemantapauksia (2010).

Vet Parasitol. 2010 Nov 22; [Epub ahead of print]
Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia.

Simuunza M, Weir W, Courcier E, Tait A, Shiels B.

Institute of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary
& Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH,
Scotland, UK; Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.

Tick-borne diseases are a constraint to livestock production in many developing
countries as they cause high morbidity and mortality, which results in decreased
production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products. The most important
tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa are East Coast fever
(caused by Theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by Babesia bigemina and B.
bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by
Ehrlichia ruminantium). Despite their economic importance, information on the
epidemiology of these diseases in many countries, including Zambia, is often
inadequate, making rational disease control strategies difficult to implement.
In this study 18S and 16S rRNA gene PCR assays were used for a comprehensive
epidemiological analysis of tick-borne disease of cattle in three provinces of
Zambia (Lusaka, Central and Eastern). All the disease pathogens under study (T.
parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, B. bovis, B. bigemina, Anaplasma spp and E.
ruminantium) were prevalent in each of the provinces surveyed. However,
variation was observed in prevalence between regions and seasons. There was no
association between live vaccination against East Coast fever and being PCR
positive for T. parva. A number of risk factors were shown to be associated with
(a) the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens in cattle and (b) cattle tick burdens
in the wet season. A negative association was observed between the number of
co-infecting pathogens and the erythrocyte packed cell volume (PCV) of carrier
cattle. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
reserved.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 21106294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Marras 30, 2010 20:50

Borrelia-bakteeria löydettiin laajasti eri puolilta Kiinaa (2010)

J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Nov 24; [Epub ahead of print]
Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in China.

Hao Q, Hou X, Geng Z, Wan K.

National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, State Key
Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing, People's
Republic of China.

We genotyped 102 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from ticks,
animals, and patients in 11 provinces in China by PCR restriction fragment
length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) amplification of 5S (rrf)-23S (rrl) ribosomal DNA
spacer amplicons and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The results showed
that B. garinii was the main genotype in China (65/102), and it was mainly
distributed in northern China. B. afzelii was the second (22/102), and it was
distributed in both northern and southern China. All B. valaisiana strains were
isolated from Guizhou Province. Additionally, one B. burgdorferi strain was
isolated from Hunan Province. Our results show the diversity and wide
distribution of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in China.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 21106783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Marras 30, 2010 20:52

Sveitsin punkeista löytyy viittä eri borrelia-bakteeria sekä babesiaa (2010)


Rev Med Suisse. 2010 Oct 13;6(266):1906-9.
[Diseases and pathogenic agents transmitted by ticks in Switzerland].

[Article in French]

Gern L, Lienhard R, Peter O.

Institut de biologie, Universite de Neuchatel. lise.gern@unine.ch

Among the 20 tick species described in Switzerland, Ixodes ricinus, the most
frequent one, is implicated in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Lyme
borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are the major tick-borne diseases
transmitted to human. **Presently 5 Borrelia species, belonging to the group Borrelia burgdorferi, are recognized as human pathogens**. The risks of infection depend on the stage of the vector, the multiple hosts, the pathogenic agent, as well as human behavior in nature. The detection of other pathogenic agents in ticks: Anaplasma, Babesia and Rickettsia predispose to infections or co-infections. Results of sero-epidemiologic studies suggest human infections. Active surveillance by physicians is necessary and clinical studies are required to evaluate the importance of these infections in Switzerland.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 21089555 [PubMed - in process]
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Tammi 24, 2011 13:40

Borrelioosi on yleisin punkkien levittämä infektiotauti sekä Euroopassa että Pohjois-Amerikassa. Taudinkuva on eri puolilla maailmaa hyvin samankaltainen. (2011 Saksa, Itävalta, Ruotsi, Uk, Irlanti)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20132258



Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Jan;17(1):69-79. doi:

10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03175.x.

Lyme borreliosis: Clinical case definitions for diagnosis and management in

Europe.

Stanek G, Fingerle V, Hunfeld KP, Jaulhac B, Kaiser R, Krause A, Kristoferitsch

W, O'Connell S, Ornstein K, Strle F, Gray J.

 Medical University of Vienna, Department of Hygiene and Applied Immunology,

Vienna, Austria  National Reference Centre for Borrelia, Bavarian Food and

Health Safety Authority, Munich, Germany  Institute for Laboratory Medicine,

Northwest Medical Center, Academic Teaching Hospital of The Johann Wolfgang

Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany  National Reference Centre for

Borrelia, Department Laboratory of Bacteriology, Strasbourg University Hospital,

Strasbourg, France  Neurology Clinic, Klinikum Pforzheim, Pforzheim, Germany

 Rheumatology Clinic, Immanuel-Krankenhaus, Berlin, Germany  Department of

Neurology, Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Ost, Donauspital, Vienna, Austria  Health

Protection Agency Lyme Borreliosis Unit, HPA Microbiology Laboratory,

Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK  Department of Clinical Sciences,

Section for Clinical and Experimental Infection Medicine, Lund University, Lund,

Sweden  Department of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Ljubljana,

Ljubljana, Slovenia  UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, University

College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Abstract

Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17: 69-79 ABSTRACT: Lyme borreliosis, caused by

spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies complex, is the most

commonly reported tick-borne infection in Europe and North America. The

non-specific nature of many of its clinical manifestations presents a diagnostic

challenge and concise case definitions are essential for its satisfactory

management. Lyme borreliosis is very similar in Europe and North America but the

greater variety of genospecies in Europe leads to some important differences in

clinical presentation. These new case definitions for European Lyme borreliosis

emphasise recognition of clinical manifestations supported by relevant

laboratory criteria and may be used in a clinical setting and also for

epidemiological investigations.© 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010

European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

PMID: 20132258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Tammi 24, 2011 14:16

2010. Punkkien ja bakteerien selviytyminen eri kosteus-ja lämpöolosuhteissa (12,5 ja 25C). Naaraspunkit selvisivät uroksia ja nymfejä paremmin. Ne punkit jotka olivat B.afzeliin infektoimia selvisivät muita punkkeja paremmin eri sääolosuhteissa.

J Med Entomol. 2010 Nov;47(6):1196-204.
Survival of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) under challenging conditions of
temperature and humidity is influenced by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
infection.

Herrmann C, Gern L.

Institute of Biology, University of Neuchatel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT To determine whether Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) influences
tick survival under thermohygrometric stress, Ixodesricinus (L.) (Acari:
Ixodidae) questing ticks were tested under various relative humidities (13, 32,
51.5, 61, and 89% RH) at two different temperatures (12.5 and 25 degrees C) and
investigated for Borrelia infection. Survival rate of females was highest
(77.6%), followed by males (51.6%), and nymphs (43.2%). The thermohygrometric
factor that most importantly determined survival was saturation deficit (SD).

As
SD increased, tick survival rate decreased in all stages. Among the 1,500 ticks
tested for B. burgdorferi s.l., 34.8% (n = 522) were infected. Adult infection
rate (39.6%) was higher than that of nymphs (25.5%). Infection load in real-time
polymerase chain reaction ranged from 1 to 1.2 million spirochetes per tick. B.
afzelii (39.7%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (12.1%), B. garinii (37.9%), B.
myamotoi (3.6%), and B. valaisiana (23.8%) were recorded. B. garinii infected
significantly less nymphs than adults whereas B. afzelii displayed the opposite
trend. Survival rate of nymphal and adult I. ricinus was significantly enhanced
by infection by B. burgdorferi s.l. (Chi(2): nymph, P = 0.008; adult, P =
0.021). In adults, a negative effect of infection on tick survival was observed
when spirochete load overcame a threshold estimated at 160,000 spirochetes per
tick but not in nymphs. Moreover, ticks infected by B. afzelii survived better
than other ticks (infected by other genospecies or not). The results here
indicate that infection by B. burgdorferi s.l., and more specifically infection
by B. afzelii, confers survival advantages to I. ricinus under challenging
thermohygrometric conditions.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... md=prlinks
PMID: 21175072 [PubMed - in process]
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Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Helmi 02, 2011 13:22

Lintujen välityksellä punkit/borrelia-bakteerit leviävät laajalle alueelle. Suurin osa linnuista löytyneistä punkeista kantoi alalajeja (25) joita ei ole mainittu aiemmin. (USA 2011)

http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/AEM.02479-10v1

AEM Accepts, published online ahead of print on 21 January 2011

Appl. Environ. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/AEM.02479-10
Copyright (c) 2011, American Society for Microbiology and/or the Listed
Authors/Institutions. All Rights Reserved.


Discovery of diverse Borrelia burgdorferi strains in a bird-tick cryptic
cycle


Sarah A. Hamer*, Graham J. Hickling, Jennifer L. Sidge, Michelle E.
Rosen, Edward D. Walker, and Jean I. Tsao
Dept. Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing,
MI; The Center for Wildlife Health, Dept. Forestry, Wildlife and
Fisheries, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Dept.
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI; Depts. Fisheries and Wildlife and Large Animal Clinical
Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: hamer@....


Abstract

The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of the most
prevalent vector-borne zoonosis in North America, Lyme disease (LD).
Enzootic maintenance of the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi by I.
scapularis and small mammals is well-documented, whereas its ?cryptic?
maintenance by other specialist ticks and wildlife hosts remains largely
unexplored because these ticks rarely bite humans.

We quantified B. burgdorferi infection in a cryptic bird-rabbit-tick cycle. Furthermore,
we explored the role of birds in maintaining and moving B. burgdorferi
strains by comparing their genetic diversity in this cryptic cycle to
that found in cycles vectored by I. scapularis. We examined birds,
rabbits, and small mammals for ticks and infection over a four-year
period at a focal site in Michigan, 90-km east of a zone of I.
scapularis invasion

. We mist netted 19,631 birds that yielded 12,301
ticks, of which 86% were I. dentatus, a bird-rabbit specialist. No
resident wildlife harbored I. scapularis, yet 3.5% of bird-derived
ticks, 3.6% of rabbit-derived ticks, and 20% of rabbit ear biopsies were
infected with B. burgdorferi. We identified 25 closely related B.
burgdorferi strains using an rRNA gene intergenic spacer marker, the
majority (68%) of which had not been reported previously.

The presence of strains common to both cryptic and endemic cycles strongly implies
bird-mediated dispersal. Given continued large-scale expansion of I.
scapularis populations, we predict that its invasion into zones of
cryptic transmission will allow for bridging of novel pathogen strains
to humans and animals.
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Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Helmi 28, 2011 17:12

Ruotsi 2010: Etelä-itä Ruotsissa selvitettiin borrelia-bakteerien esiintymistä punkeissa sekä taudin tarttumista ihmisiin. Punkkeja kerättiin 397kpl. 75:ssä oli Bb. ihmisistä 64 oli saanut tartunnan. Neljällä oli positiivinen testitulos. Kukaan ei ollut hakeutunut hoitoon oireiden vuoksi.

Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 16; [Epub ahead of print]

Low risk of developing Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the south-east of
Sweden after being bitten by a Borrelia burgdorferi-infected tick.

Fryland L, Wilhelmsson P, Lindgren PE, Nyman D, Ekerfelt C, Forsberg P.

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental
Medicine, Linkoping University, S-581 85 Linkoping, Sweden.

OBJECTIVES: The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) from Borrelia
burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb)-infected ticks in Sweden is largely unknown. In
the current study, we investigated the prevalence of Bb in ticks that had
bitten humans and the risk of developing LB from Bb-infected ticks. METHODS:
Health questionnaires, blood samples, and ticks were collected from 394
tick-bitten study subjects in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden, at the
time of the tick bite. Questionnaires and blood samples were also collected
3 months later. Ticks were screened for Bb DNA with PCR, while sera were
analyzed for antibodies against Bb using two ELISA assays. Seroconversion,
i.e., an at least two-fold increase in anti-Bb antibodies after 3 months,
was confirmed using a Strip-Immunoassay.

RESULTS: Seventy-five of 397 ticks
collected from the study subjects were determined to be Bb-positive.
Sixty-four of the tick-bitten subjects had been bitten by Bb-infected ticks.
Four of them showed seroconversion and were therefore considered to have an
active Bb infection.
None of these four subjects had sought health care due to symptoms, but one
reported symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the risk of developing
LB after being bitten by a Bb-infected tick is low, and asymptomatic Bb
infections appear to be more frequent than symptomatic infections. Copyright
(c) 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by
Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/e ... med&id=211
68354&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks
PMID: 21168354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ma Touko 30, 2011 08:04

http://news.evira.fi/newsletter.php?id=11&uutinen=101

"Ruskea koirapunkki on hankalasti huoneistoista hävitettävä koiran loinen

Koirien mukana ympäri maailmaa, myös Suomeen levinnyt ruskea koirapunkki (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) on lähtöisin Pohjois-Afrikasta. Luontaisilla esiintymisalueillaan ruskea koirapunkki on useiden villien ja kesyjen nisäkkäiden loinen. Kaupunkiolosuhteissa se on ennen kaikkea koirien vaivana. Suomessa normaalin puutiaiskauden ulkopuolella koirassa tavatut punkit ovat todennäköisesti ruskeita koirapunkkeja.

Ruskea koirapunkki muistuttaa tavallista puutiaista (Ixodes ricinus). Ruskean koirapunkin voi erottaa punaruskeasta väristä ja kylkien silmäkuvioista. Lisäksi sillä on pidemmät jalat kuin tavallisella puutiaisella, jolloin se liikkuu myös nopeammin.

Suomeen ruskea koirapunkki saapui 1970-luvulla ja on nykyään levinnyt ympäri maata. Suomen olosuhteissa se menestyy vain sisätiloissa. Asuntojen kuivassa ja lämpimässä huoneilmassa ruskea koirapunkki säilyy aktiivisena ympäri vuoden. Kaikissa kehitysmuodoissaan eli toukkana, nymfinä ja aikuisena punkki tarvitsee nisäkkään verta, jota se imee tavallisimmin koirasta. Väliajat punkit piileskelevät asuntojen listojen takana, huonekaluissa ja seinien raoissa. Aikuinen punkki voi elää huoneistossa jopa 18 kuukautta ilman verta. Veren imemisen jälkeen naaras munii huoneistoon ja kuolee.

Ruskea koirapunkki ei yleensä tartu suoraan koirasta toiseen, vaan koira saa tartunnan oleskellessaan tiloissa, joissa punkit viettävät väliaikoja. Toukkana ja nymfinä punkki kiinnittyy etenkin koiran korviin ja varpaiden väleihin. Samassa koirassa voi olla punkkien eri kehitysvaiheita, ja punkkien määrä eläimessä voi olla huomattava. Ruskea koirapunkki voi kiinnittyä myös ihmiseen, erityisesti jos punkin lähellä ei ole koiria. Punkit poistetaan käyttäen punkkipihtejä.

Ruskea koirapunkkitartunta ei sinänsä aiheuta merkittäviä oireita. Se voi kuitenkin aiheuttaa paikallista ihoärsytystä. Sen terveydellinen merkitys liittyy punkin toimimiseen verisoluja infektoivien taudinaiheuttajien siirtäjänä. Näistä tunnetuimmat ovat Ehrlichia canis -rikettisiabakteeri ja Babesia canis -alkueläin. Koiran monosytääristä ehrlichioosia (E.canis) ja koiran babesioosia (Babesia ssp.) on Suomessa toistaiseksi todettu yksittäisinä ulkomailla saatuina tartuntoina. Ruskean koirapunkin ei ole osoitettu levittävän Suomessa esiintyviä punkkivälitteisiä tauteja, kuten borrelioosia.

Koirasta punkit saa hävitettyä tarkoitusta varten olevilla lääkevalmisteilla. Reseptivapaita punkkeihin tehoavia valmisteita ovat esim. Scalibor®, Exspot® ja Frontline®. Ongelmalliseksi koirapunkkitartunnan tekee huoneistossa piileskelevien punkkien hävittäminen. Punkkien hävittäminen kodista tms. on vaikeaa ja vaatii perusteellisen käsittelyn pyretriinejä sisältävillä hyönteistorjunta-aineilla, esim. Raid®, Baygon®. Käsittely voidaan joutua uusimaan 2-4 viikon välein kunnes punkit on saatu hävitettyä.

Lisätietoja:
Eläinlääkäri Teija Kokkonen, p. 020 77 24547"

http://personal.inet.fi/koti/picaro-agil/article5.html
"Uutena tulokkaana Suomessa on Rhipicephalus sanguineus, ruskea koirapunkki eli koiran puutiainen, joka toimii useiden sairauksien levittäjänä. Se on yleinen Etelä-Euroopassa, mistä se lienee kulkeutunut lisääntyneen matkailun mukana meillekin 1970-luvulta alkaen. Suomessa ruskean koirapunkin tartuntoja on 2000-luvulla ollut useita kymmeniä. Suomen kylmä ilmasto ei suosi ruskean koirapunkin elämistä ulkosalla, mutta se on löytänyt itselleen sopivat elinolot lämpimistä asunnoistamme. Ruskea koirapunkki ei saalista puutiaisen tavoin ?kyttäämällä?, vaan hyökkäämällä ja kiinni juoksemalla. Uhriksi sopii koira tai ihminen, erityisesti lapset, joiden iho on ohutta. Aterioituaan se irrottautuu ja vilistää suojaan huonekaluihin, taulujen tai jalkalistojen taakse sulattelemaan ateriaansa ja kehittymään seuraavalle asteelle. Aikuinen ruskea koirapunkki voi elää jopa 18 kk ilman veriateriaa."
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Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Syys 07, 2011 13:11

(Sveitsi 2011) Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin sveitsiläisten sairastumisriskiä punkinpureman jälkeen (verinäytteen tai oireiden pohjalta arvioituna) v.2003-2005. Oireettomia henkilöitä oli 255. Heistä osalla, 2,1% - 6,8%, borreliatesti oli oireettomuudesta huolimatta positiivinen. Naaraspunkeista vain 38,3% oli kiinnittyneenä ihossa yli vuorokauden. Oireisia henkilöitä oli 14. Ihomuutos oli kuitenkin vain 3,4-7,5 %:lla!

Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011 Sep;2(3):129-36. Epub 2011 Jul 28.

Prospective study on the incidence of infection by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato after a tick bite in a highly endemic area of Switzerland.

Huegli D, Moret J, Rais O, Moosmann Y, Erard P, Malinverni R, Gern L.
Source
Institut de Biologie, Laboratoire d'Eco-Epidémiologie, Université de Neuchâtel, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Abstract
The periurban forest of Neuchâtel (Switzerland) is a high-risk area for Lyme Borreliosis, due to a high density of infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. In this study, we evaluated the risk of subclinical (seroconversion) and clinical infection after a tick bite in Neuchâtel inhabitants from 2003 to 2005. Inhabitants have been invited, through media, to visit a physician after a tick bite.

A questionnaire was filled out and two blood samples were taken at 8-week interval. EIA screening tests for IgM and IgG (IMX system, Abbott) were applied for paired sera. In case of a change in antibody titres between both samples, a homemade Western-blot using Borrelia afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii as antigens was performed. Participants were included into two groups.

Group one included asymptomatic participants (n=255). Among them, nine (3.5%) seroconverted with seroconversion rates varying between 6.8% in 2003, 2.1% in 2004 and 2.3% in 2005.

Participants who developed clinical symptoms of LB were included into group two (n=14).
Erythema migrans (EM) was reported in 5.2% of participants (5.2%), varying between 7.5% in 2003, 5% in 2004 and 3.4% in 2005. Ticks obtained from 186 participants were examined for B. burgdorferi infection by PCR/Reverse Line Blotting, and by Real Time PCR and tick attachment duration was estimated.

Among I. ricinus ticks collected from participants, 32.8% were infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato. B. afzelii predominated among these ticks.
Globally, 65.9% of nymphs remained attached for more than 24h whereas only 38.3% of female ticks remained attached for more than 24h. We observed that 6.6% and 2.4% of participants bitten by infected and uninfected ticks, respectively, developed EM.
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Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Syys 08, 2011 14:13

Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin 165:n henkilön sairastuvuutta Borrelioosiin. Henkilöt asuivat alueella jossa tartuntamahdollisuus on suuri. Tutkituista yli 40%:lla oli positiivinen borrelianäyte ja yli 20%:lla positiivinen ehrlichioosi näyte.

[Serology of Lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in 2005-2010].

Balátová P, Kurzová Z, Hulínská D

Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2011 06; 60 (2): 74-6

The subject of this study is serological screening of blood and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) samples for the presence of borrelial and ehrlichial antibodies. A total of 165 patients suspected to be at risk of Lyme disease were tested. Indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay were used as diagnostic methods. Ehrlichial antibodies were detected in 36 (21.8%) patients. Borrelial antibodies were found in 70 samples (42.4%). The widening range of tick-borne diseases brings about the need for more data on these zoonoses.
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Syys 08, 2011 14:19


Kiinassa (pohjois-itä) borrelia-bakteerista esiintyy useita geneettisiä variaatioita. Useimmat bakteerit olivat B.gariniita tai B.afzeliita.


Genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Northeastern China.

Chu CY, Jiang BG, He J, Gao Y, Zhang PH, Wu XM, Zhang WY, Shi H, Gaowa HS, Wang JB, Foley JE, Liu W, Cao WC

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 07; 11 (7): 877-82

Thirty-two strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from northeastern China from May to June in 2004 and 2005. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequence analysis of 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer revealed that 29 (90.6%) belonged to Borrelia garinii, demonstrating B, C, and a unique pattern. The remaining three isolates (9.4%) were Borrelia afzelii with pattern D. The phylogenetic analysis based on 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer showed that B. garinii and B. afzelii genospecies clustered into two separate lineages. B. garinii strains were classified into three different branches: All the strains with RFLP pattern C were in the same branch, strain VH10 with a unique RFLP pattern clustered with strains VH9 and MDH2 with pattern B, and the rest of the strains with pattern B constitute another branch.

These findings demonstrate the genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from north eastern China.
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Syys 08, 2011 14:27

Borrelia-bakteerit leviävät linnuissa olevien punkkien mukana laajoille alueille. Terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten tulee huomioida että borreliatartunta on mahdollista vaikka henkilö ei olisi matkustanut "punkkialueilla" tai kyseisellä alueella ei olisi aiemmin havaittu punkkeja/Borrelioosia.


Widespread dispersal of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks collected from songbirds across Canada.

Scott JD, Anderson JF, Durden LA

J Parasitol 2011 08 24

Abstract
Millions of Lyme disease vector ticks are dispersed annually by songbirds across Canada, but often overlooked as the source of infection. For clarity on vector distribution, we sampled 481 ticks (12 species and 3 undetermined ticks) from 211 songbirds (42 species/subspecies) nationwide. Using PCR, 52 (29.5%) of 176 Ixodes ticks tested were positive for the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Immature blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected from infested songbirds had a B. burgdorferi infection prevalence of 36% (larvae, 48%; nymphs, 31%). Notably, Ixodes affinis is reported in Canada for the first time and, similarly, Ixodes auritulus for the initial time in the Yukon. Firsts for bird-parasitizing ticks include I. scapularis in Quebec and Saskatchewan. We provide the first records of 3 tick species cofeeding on passerines (song sparrow, Swainson's thrush). New host records reveal I. scapularis on the blackpoll warbler and Nashville warbler. W e furnish the following first Canadian reports of B. burgdorferi-positive ticks: I. scapularis on chipping sparrow, house wren, indigo bunting; I. auritulus on Bewick's wren; and I. spinipalpis on a Bewick's wren and song sparrow. First records of B. burgdorferi-infected ticks on songbirds include: the rabbit-associated tick, Ixodes dentatus, in western Canada; I. scapularis in Quebec, Saskatchewan, northern New Brunswick, northern Ontario; and Ixodes spinipalpis (collected in British Columbia). The presence of B. burgdorferi in Ixodes larvae suggests reservoir competency in 9 passerines (Bewick's wren, common yellowthroat, dark-eyed junco, Oregon junco, red-winged blackbird, song sparrow, Swainson's thrush, swamp sparrow, and white-throated sparrow). We report transstadial transmission (larva to nymph) of B. burgdorferi in I. auritulus. Data suggest a possible 4-tick, i.e., I. angustus, I. auritulus, I. pacificus, and I. spinipalpis enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi on Vanco uver Island, British Columbia.

Our results suggest that songbirds infested with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks have the potential to start new tick populations endemic for Lyme disease. Because songbirds disperse B. burgdorferi-infected ticks outside their anticipated range, health-care providers are advised that people can contract Lyme disease locally without any history of travel.
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Viestit: 3097
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Loka 20, 2011 20:21

Norjalaisen Kjellandin väitöskirja:
Borrelioosi on punkkien välityksellä leviävistä taudeista yleisin. Laajan selvityksen mukaan borrelia-bakteeria esiintyy punkeissa selvästi enemmän kuin aiemmissa norjalaisissa ja skandinaavisissa tutkimuksissa on aiemmin esitetty. Linnut ovat merkittäviä punkkien/borrelia-bakteerin levittäjiä Euroopassa. Norjassa yleinen punkki, Ixodes ricinus, voi tartuttaa ihmisiin ja eläimiin lukuisia eri bakteereja ja viruksia.



http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... 083512.htm


Borrelia Infection in Ticks in Norway
enlarge

Female tick with eggs. (Credit: Vivian Kjelland)

ScienceDaily (June 24, 2011) ? The most common tick-borne disease in humans is Lyme borreliosis. Extensive field and laboratory tests have revealed that the Borrelia bacterium is present in a larger proportion of ticks than has been shown by earlier studies. Another finding is that migratory birds play an important role in the spreading of ticks and pathogenic agents borne by ticks.

Ticks are to be found in most parts of the world, and more than 900 species have been identified so far. The geographic distribution of these many tick species varies and the most prevalent species in Norway is the forest tick (Ixodes ricinus), which can be the bearer of a number of bacteria and viruses that can infect animals and humans and cause disease.

In recent years, there has been increasing focus on ticks and the diseases a tick bite can cause and there are also indications that ticks are occurring in new areas of the country. This has resulted in an increase in the number of disease cases, both as regards Lyme borreliosis (LB) and other illnesses such as tick-borne encephalitis (TBE).

As part of her doctoral research at The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Vivian Kjelland has carried out extensive field and laboratory studies with a view to increasing our knowledge in this field. She has examined the occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks and which genotypes of the bacterium occur in ticks in Norway. Her results show that a larger proportion of the ticks were infected, compared to the findings of earlier Norwegian and Scandinavian studies.

Migratory birds are thought to be an important factor in the global spreading of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Some of Kjelland's work involved collecting ticks from migratory birds in order to study them. Ticks from 6538 migratory birds caught at Lista Ornithological Station were analysed to find out whether they were infected by Borrelia.

Kjelland's study corroborates the assumption that birds play an important role in the spreading of ticks and that they may be partly responsible for the prevalence of various genotypes of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.
The hare population seems to be in strong decline in Norway. The results of Kjelland's doctoral research indicate that a Borrelia infection spread from the bite to the bloodstream or internal organs seldom occurs in hares and that the bacterium probably does not play a significant role in the decline of the hare population. But Kjelland's findings show that hares can be reservoirs for certain genotypes of the bacterium.

The role played by deer in the ecology of Lyme borreliosis is a subject of debate. Kjelland's doctoral thesis indicates that there is a lower incidence of the Borrelia bacterium in ticks that have sucked blood from deer and moose than in ticks collected from the ground/vegetation.
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Loka 25, 2011 14:51

Australiassa on huomattavasti enemmän punkkien välityksellä leviäviä sairauksia, kuten Borrelioosi, babesia, ehrlichia ja bartonella, kuin aiemmin on esitetty. Tauteja on esiintynyt nimenomaan sellaisilla henkilöillä jotka eivät ole koskaan matkustaneet ulkomailla.


"This article has been sent to Dove Medical Press for publication. When accepted for publication this version may be removed."

Emerging Incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia

Peter J Mayne MBBS DPD IDD

Corresponding author

Dr Peter J Mayne

89 Bold St Laurieton NSW 2443

Australia

Phone +61 2 6559 9277

Fax +61 2 6559 7344

Email Laurietonmedical@gmail.com

The author is a member of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS)



Running title: Emerging tick born diseases in Australia

Keywords: Borrelia, Lyme disease, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichiosis, Australia, humans

Abstract

Background: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp.) are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia.

Methods: Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) followed by IgG and IgM Western Blot (WB) assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Simultaneously patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

Results: Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55%) tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32%) were positive for Babesia spp. and 9 (22%) were positive for Bartonella spp. 25 patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp,, 4 (16%) were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41%) had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the East Coast of Australia.

Conclusions: The study identified a much larger TBD burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are described. It thus defines current hidden and unrecognized components of TBD and demonstrates local acquisition in patients who have never been abroad.


Introduction

Human tick-borne disease (TBD) is an increasing health burden on the Australian community requiring wider diagnostic recognition. It comprises multiple specific zoonoses, some of which are well recognized and documented, including tick paralysis and rickettsial disease as reported at a Sydney University Website (Entomology).1 The present study addresses recent evidence for emerging Borrelia, Babesia, Bartonella, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infections in Australia. The study confirms previously published work regarding the existence of human Borrelia infection in Australia.2,3 There are no further publications of human LD in the interval. It also examines the incidence of tick-borne coinfections, some of which occur in patients who have never left Australia.

The country has 75 tick species1 with general acceptance of Ixodes spp. and Ixodes holocyclus (Ih) in particular, as the main contenders in inducing human TBD in the country.4,5 The entire Eastern coastline is habitat to Ih and it is known to vector human disease including rickettsial infection and tick paralysis.1,4,6,7 The Ih tick is colloquially named paralysis tick, grass tick, shell back tick and several others.1 It thrives in humid conditions along the coast, mainly in flatlands, from the north of the continent just above Cooktown in Queensland to Lakes Entrance in Victoria at the very south of the continent. The region has a very high proportion of Australia?s human population.

The Ih tick has a larval, nymph and adult form all of which require a blood meal.1 Larvae typically feed upon small animal hosts whilst nymph and adult will include larger animals. Humans are incidental hosts to the latter two forms. The tick may stay attached for up to 5-6 days before detaching if not found. Many tick bites are not observed or reported. Probably many of the nymph type, about the size of a poppyseed, are simply scratched off particularly if attached to the scalp. In Australia a majority of bites will come to nothing more than a non-elevated erythematous patch on the skin of up to 2 cm diameter resolving completely over a few days providing the tick is removed promptly. Some lesions grow over 1 to 2 days to 2-3 cm by the second day and show a central hillock with a punctum appearing as a dell. These present the typical appearance of Queensland Tick Typhus, a rickettsia.6,7 A tick attachment may also cause rickettsial spotted fever, a febrile illness whose erythematous macules are typically 4 to 5 mm in diameter.6

Erythema migrans (EM) is a local skin reaction to a tick bite caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb s.l.) infection.8 After an initial 1 cm erythematous lesion, at day 2 to 5 or even later, the lesion will commence to grow in diameter and thicken for anywhere up to 14 days if left untreated. It quickly becomes itchy and painful. Rarely there will be central induration and paling of color which gives the bull?s eye classically referred to in Lyme disease (LD) literature. This has been the author?s observation over 20 years in his current practice in Australia. A single primary lesion must reach more than 5cm in size to be classified as an EM and then it is considered to be pathognomonic.9 When documented in a known tick area it is also considered sufficient for a clinical diagnosis of LD.

LD is a protean illness that develops 6 months to 8 years after a tick bite.10 In North America a principal symptom of the disease is a migratory arthritic illness that may be crippling and associated with marked general fatigue and other somatic features. The CDC website states that in the musculoskeletal system LD produces recurrent attacks of arthritis with objective joint swelling in one or a few joints, sometimes followed by chronic arthritis.11 LD in North America may also be principally a neurological disease. In the case load presented here it is entirely a neurological disease with symptoms of meningism, cranial neuropathy and sometimes encephalopathy. Of importance is the large number of cranial nerves involved including sensory. Such a factor precludes diagnoses of multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia and several others, leaving only sarcoid, bartonellosis, borreliosis and the autoimmune neurological diseases (one of which commonly known to every medical graduate is Guillain Barre syndrome) as differential diagnoses.

Treatment of established LD is very complex, can be protracted, and revolves around killing 3 forms of the bacterium that all coexist. Specifically these are cell wall, intracellular and cystic forms. To add to the complexity there can be immune suppression known to be directly induced by the Lyme bacterium. Stricker and Winger first identified immune dysfunction demonstrated by lowered CD57 natural killer cell counts associated with LD.12

Babesia spp. are piroplasms that invade red blood cells.13 In the developing world babesiosis is frequently mistaken for malaria which it symptomatically mimics in the acute phase. Most healthy individuals recover completely from infection with this piroplasm over 4 or more weeks. A very few go on to chronic infection. The disease can be fatal in the acute stage with multiorgan failure due to intravascular hemolysis and stasis, particularly in splenectomised individuals. There is a large emerging incidence of low-grade babesiosis in association with LD in North America. Treatment for babesiosis in the presence of Lyme borreliosis is very difficult. Drug therapy is similar to that for malaria. Clinical symptoms and signs as a TBD are intermingled with those of LD, are complex, and beyond the scope of this work.

Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative intracellular bacterium.14 Alone it has been known to be the cause of cat scratch fever particularly in Pediatric Medicine where it is defined by its hallmark of pink striae that are quite unmistakable. It causes an acute febrile illness in solitary infection. However it can also be tick-borne, and whilst attention is given to EM and LD, it can be overlooked, just as Babesia is in the acute phase. It may go on to cause chronic symptoms identical to or confounding those of neuroborreliosis. It is extremely important in all documented cases to consider thorough cardiac assessment for both endocardial and myocardial damage. The Centre for Disease Control (CDC) gives a good overview.15

Human Granulocytic Ehrlichosis (HGE) is an infection of the neutrophil line of white blood cells.14 The agent is a rickettsia. Onset of symptoms can be as bland as a febrile illness following exposure by typically 4 weeks. It can present much more seriously and can be fatal. The only significant routine laboratory finding is a low white blood cell count. The infection will only be confirmed by suspicion and further serological testing. Treatment should commence whilst waiting for serology.

Human Monocytic Ehrlichosis (HME) like HGE, is an infection caused by a rickettsial sp. but of the monocyte rather than of the neutrophil cell line.16 Though reported in North America HME was not found in this study.

Materials and methods

The author is a General Practitioner with specific interest and training in Dermatology and LD. Most of the patients in the series were self-referred having found the author?s interest in LD. Some were referred from The University of Newcastle, and some from other doctors. Patients presented with a broad range of clinical symptoms. Investigation was recommended for all cases where LD was considered possible from a clinical perspective. All cases of potential tick-borne disease that were referred in the period November 2009 to August 2011 for serological and PCR testing of any description for the above diseases at IGeneX in Palo Alto, California, USA, were included in this survey. 3 patients presented with these tests already done and are included. 2 patients attended from New Zealand. At the same time others were tested by Australian laboratories. However only IGeneX was able to offer testing for Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia spp.. A total of 51 patients had testing at IGeneX over the 18 month period of the survey. In the same period a smaller number had other testing in Australia for Bb enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA, all of which were negative, and a number underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for borrelia DNA, some of whom were positive. A further subset of those positives had confirmation by sequencing. This group is the subject of future research. Many had no testing of this type because of patient cost.

IGeneX is a major laboratory specializing in TBDs. It is a reference laboratory recognized by the American College of Pathologists and is Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA), Medicare and Medicaid approved thus satisfying licensing requirements for most of the US states to perform high complexity clinical testing. It has also met licensing requirements in the states requiring additional licensing: California, Florida, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania. Statements concerning laboratory performance and validation in the area of quality assurance in LD testing are available on the IGeneX website.17

Blood was collected in EDTA tubes and serum separator tubes, stood for 30 minutes, and then centrifuged prior to dispatch. A hemolyzed specimen was discarded. Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) followed by IgG and IgM Western Blot (WB) assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex PCR testing. IGeneX multiplex B burgdorferi PCR detects specific DNA sequences from Osp A plasmid and flagellin genomic genes. The test is not B. burgdorferi specific and also detects B. afzelii, B. andersoni, and B. garinii. Simultaneously patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

Results

Borrelia

51 patients were tested for Lyme Borreliosis and 28 showed positive test results (Table 1). IFA (IgG/M/A) serologic reactivity to Bb antigens was demonstrated in 13 patients; 1 with a titer of 1:160, 3 with titers of 1:80 and 9 patients with titers of 1:40. Western Blot (WB) banding patterns are provided on reports and are interpreted both by IgeneX standards and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) sureveillance standards, as discussed below. Patterns for IgM WB revealed 3 patients seroreactive to the 23-25 kDa protein, 7 to the 31 kDa protein, 4 to the 34 kDa protein, 4 to the 39 kDa protein, 28 to the 41 kDa protein and 3 to the 83-93 kDa protein. Patterns for IgG WBs revealed 3 patients seroreactive to the 23-25 kDa protein, 2 at the 30 kDa protein, 7to the 31 kDa protein, 3 to the 34 kDa protein, 5 to the 39 kDa protein, 16 to the 41 kDa protein and 0 to the 83-93 kDa protein (Table 1). PCR assays detected plasmid DNA in serum samples from 8 patients and in whole blood samples from 2 patients (Table 1). 28 patients had positive WB by IGeneX standards (table 1). 20 patients had WBs that were positive to the strict CDC WB surveillance criteria (discussed below). 6 lacked sufficient IgG reactivity to be CDC-positive and a further 2 lacked IgM reactivity. Reactivity to the flagellin band 41 kDa was universal on all WB results. A high incidence of reactivity to the 31 and 58 kDa proteins merits further evaluation. In a report from China in 2010, Jiang et al. studied 127 Lyme borreliosis-positive patients (B garinii strain PD91) and 504 negative controls and proposed that band 58 is important diagnostically in that country for their major strain of Borrelia infection.18 In this Australian study 14 out of 28 positives showed band 58 on either IgG or IgM. Band 58 may signify B. garinii in Australia.

IFA, WB, and PCR test results vary from patient to patient with no clear pattern emerging as to which technique is more likely to show evidence of LD. Isolated WB positivity (no IFA or PCR positivity) was found in 12 of the 28 cases. Only one case of isolated PCR positivity (IFA and WB negative) was found. Of most importance is the fact that 13 patients with diagnostically positive WB and negative IFA would have been undiagnosed if IFA had been used as an obligatory screening test prior to WB testing. See tabulation of results in Table 1.
Borrelia burgdorferi positive laboratory test results

Patient Lyme IFA titer IgM WB IgG WB PCR serum PCR Blood
1 pos 31,41,83-93 pos 18,31,39,41,45,58,66
2 plasmid
3 40 23-25,30 Pos 18,34,41,58
4 40 Pos/CDC 39,41,58 41,45,58
5 80 66 pos 31,41,58
6 pos 31,41
7 pos 18,23-25,41,58
8 40 Pos/CDC 23-25,31,34,39,41,58,66,83-93 41
9 30,41 pos 31,41,58
10 Pos 18,23-25,28,30,31,34,41,58
11 40 41,58 plasmid
12 Pos 31,34,41,58,66 41,58
13 >80 Pos 31,41
14 80 Pos 31 34 41 plasmid
15 41,58 pos 18,34,41,58
16 40 pos 39,41
17 Pos 31,41 Pos 39,41
18 plasmid
19 80 pos 18,34,41,58,66 41
20 40 Pos/CDC 23-25,41,83-93 41,58
21 Pos 23-25,41
22 40 Pos 31, 41, 83-93 plasmid
23 18,83-93 pos 39,41,58
24 40 pos 31,41 41,56 plasmid
25 Pos 23-25,30,41,66 plasmid
26 40 Pos/CDC 39,41 Pos 39,41 plasmid
27 Pos/CDC 23-25,39,41 Pos 30,31,41
28 Pos 31, 41
n 9 at 1:40 13 Pos 15 Pos 6 2
4 at 1:80 5 CDC Nil CDC

Notes to the table
Pos - positive Western Blot bands by Igenex standards
CDC - positive Western Blot bands by CDC surveillance criteria
Combined count showing kDa 58 protein is 14

Babesia

41 patients were tested for babesiosis (both B duncani and B microti) and 13 tested positive (table 2). 2 of these patients had positive Babesia Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) results. 2 patients demonstrated positive IgM reactivity for B. duncani, 1 with a 1:160 titer and 1 with a 1:80 titer. 6 patients demonstrated IgG reactivity, 3 with titers of 1:80 and 3 with titers of 1:40. B. duncani DNA was detected by PCR in 1 patient. IgM seroreactivity was demonstrated in 2 patients a titer of 1:20 and IgG seroreactivity was demonstrated in 4 patients with a titer of 1:40. Immunofluorescent Antibody assays (IFA) was used to detect antibody/antigen reactivity. In no instance was serology done at acute onset.

Bartonella

41 patients were tested for bartonellosis 9 of whom tested positive (table 2). IFA was used to detect antibody/antigen reactivity. 2 demonstrated positive IgM reactivity at a titer of 1:40 and 2 at a titer of 1:20. Four patients demonstrated IgG reactivity: 1 at titer of 1:80 and 3 at a titer of 1:40. Bartonella PCR and FISH assays were performed but were negative in all cases. In no instance was serology done at acute onset. For these and also the babesiosis findings above many months of symptoms had passed before all specimen collections. Positive results from any of the tests triggered clinical suspicion of disease and consideration of treatment for those identifiable clinical features that had triggered the investigation.
Table 2 Babesia and Bartonella positive laboratory test results

IFA IgM IFA IgM IFA IgM IFA IgM IFA IgG IFA IgG
Titer 1:160 Titer 1: 80 Titer 1:40 Titer 1:20 Titer 1:80 Titer 1:40 PCR FISH
B. duncani 1 1 2 3 3 1
B. microti 1 2 4
Babesia FISH 2
B. henselae 2 2 1 3
Bartonella FISH nil

41 patients tested for both Babesia and Bartonella
Discrete patient positives were Babesia 13 and Bartonella 9

Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE) and Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME)

25 patients were tested for HGE and HME. Of these 4 were serologically positive. All these patients had travelled outside Australia, but one reported travel only to Fiji for 2 weeks and had documented multiple tick bites on one day in Australia. HME is an emerging TBD in North America but will not be discussed further in this document as the presence of Ehrlichia chaffenesis was not detected in laboratory tests of any of the 25 patients.

HGE positive IFA serological results were as follows: IgM, 2 patients at a titer 1:20, IgG, 1 patient at 1:80 and 1 patient at 1:40. In no instance was serology done at acute onset. Many months of symptoms had passed before all specimen collections. Of note is the fact that all these patients had negative Australian Rickettsial studies.

Finally the 21 patients that demonstrated evidence of the studied coinfections formed a discrete subset of the 28 Bb-positive laboratory test patients.

Patients who had never travelled outside Australia

A group of 4 patients reported having never travelled outside of Australia. Their geographic movements within Australia portray a lifelong picture. See table 3 for results summary. Patient A is a child (number 27 in table 1) who travelled from Byron Bay NSW to Eastlakes Victoria by caravan but resided on the mid North Coast of NSW. This patient had Lyme IgM WB positive at bands 23-25, 39 and 41 KDa, while B. henselae serology for IgM was positive at a titer of 1:40. Patient B is an adult (number 24 in table 1) who has always lived in Queensland but has travelled to Northern NSW, Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. Yepoon Queensland is the furthest north he has been. Lyme IFA was 1:40, Lyme WB IgM was positive at bands 31 and 41 kDa, Borrelia PCR was positive for plasmid. B. duncani, IgG serology was positive at 1:40, B. microti IgG serology was positive at 1:40 and B. henselae IgM serology was positive at 1:40. Patient C is an adult (number 19 in table 1) who has lived in Queensland, except Karratha Western Australia from age 2-7 and used to holiday repeatedly at Armstrong Beach Queensland which is the site of a cluster of LD already identified by the author. Lyme IFA was 1:80, WB IgM was positive at 34 and 41kDa and Bartonella IgG serology was positive at 1:40. Patient D is an adult (number 6 in table 1) who was born in Victoria and then moved to NSW, from where he had travelled to Queensland as far north as Airlie Beach. He travelled into South Australia for 1 day once. Lyme WB was positive at 31 and 41 kDa and B. duncani was IgG positive 1:40 titer.
Table 3 Positive Laboratory Test Results of Patients Who Have Not Left Australia

Patient Lyme IFA Lyme Lyme Lyme B. duncani B Microti Bartonella
WB IgM bands WB IgG bands PCR serum
A 23-25,39,41 30, 31, 41 IgM titer 1: 40
B titer 1:40 31,41 to plasmid IgG titer 1: 40 IgG titer 1:40 IgM titer 1: 40
C titer 1:80 31,41 IgM titer 1: 40
D 31,41 IgG titer 1: 40

Discussion

There has been considerable debate about the existence of LD in Australia. There are limited published reports of both EM and locally acquired and proven human Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Australia.2,3 At the time of the McCrossin study2 in 1986 only serological diagnostic tests were available. For the Hudson study3 in 1998 Borrelia were cultured and identified with PCR in one patient with the results suggesting the bacteria were similar to European B. garinii in derivation rather than Asiatic spp. That person had previously been overseas. In the current setting we need to first examine the reporting of WB. By IGeneX standards the IgM or IgG WB is positive if two or more of the bands 23-25, 31, 34, 39, 41, 83-93 are present. For CDC surveillance criteria for IgM 2 or more of the bands 23-25, 39 and 41 must be positive, while the CDC IgG surveillance criteria for WB is positive if 5 of the following bands are present: 18, 23-25, 28, 30, 39, 41, 45, 58, 66, 83-93. It is important to note that the CDC has just amended its statement of criteria to include clinical impression. According to the website revised January 2011.19 ?Surveillance case definitions establish uniform criteria for disease reporting and should not be used as the sole criteria for establishing clinical diagnoses, determining the standard of care necessary for a particular patient, setting guidelines for quality assurance, or providing standards for reimbursement?. These criteria were developed for reporting purposes (case definition).20 They were never meant to encompass the entire possible spectrum of LD. It is a serious scientific error to exclude a diagnosis of LD when there are less than 5 bands on IgG WB as has been occurring at Australian laboratories.

Lyme serological testing methods ( ELISA, IFA, and WBs) although specific, lack sensitivity. Differences in WB performance and interpretation account for some of the variation in specificity and sensitivity reported among laboratories. PCR has become a gold standard of proof of infection, not just for LD, but all infections. A positive culture remains the absolute proof of infection, but a negative culture does not rule it out.

In this series 51 patients were tested for the presence of Bb DNA with 8 patients demonstrating positive results for Borrelia multiplex PCR assays for plasmid DNA. Of these one person, patient B above, demonstrated positive PCR test results from a serum sample, yet had never left Australia. Patient B?s Lyme IFA was titered at 1:40, while the IgM WB showed positive bands at 31 and 41 kDa. In the author?s opinion this is the first published evidence of Bb infection verified by PCR where the infection was acquired within Australia. To be noted is the fact that the infection progressed over a period of 3 years and the patient manifested the full classic triad of associated tick-borne diseases as discussed further below.

There have been no documented cases of human babesiosis, either from B. duncani or B. microti in Australia. This study provides serological and DNA evidence that babesiosis exists in Australia, as demonstrated by the positive findings for IgG and IgM reactivity, FISH and PCR in 14 individuals tested out of 41 in table 2. Amongst those who had never left Australia, 2 patients, B and D, manifested weak serological evidence of babesiosis with negative PCR and FISH indicating local acquisition of both B. microti and B. duncani coexisting with LD and possible transmission by ticks.

B. henselae infection has been considered rare in Australia. This study provides evidence that it should be considered as a TBD co-infection at any age as indicated by 9 of the 41 patients (7 adults and 2 children) manifesting positive serology, though to date PCR and FISH have been negative (See table 1). Furthermore patients A and C, who have never left Australia, provide evidence of local acquisition of B henselae coexisting with LD and possible transmission by ticks.

Although there is currently no evidence of locally acquired ehrlichiosis it is evident from the study that in travellers and immigrants it could be brought into the country from overseas, and that the two tick-borne forms of the disease HGE and HME need to be considered in diagnostic evaluation.

All the above diseases are reported as emerging infectious diseases worldwide, particularly in North America. This study shows Australia is no exception to the pattern. The broader topic warrants wider research than is presented within.

Conclusion

These results show a burden of TBD in Australia that requires not only further research and evaluation but also a management response from the medical profession and Public Health entities of the Eastern States. The long running discussion about the existence of LD in Australia needs to be put in a new perspective. It can obviously be acquired here as demonstrated in this study, so it is endemic as is babesiosis. Regardless of whether LD is acquired locally in Australia or acquired from abroad, the fact remains that Australian citizens are living in this country afflicted with this disease and are in need of treatment.

LD is protean in its manifestation and difficult to treat if protracted. The medical profession of Australia needs to now be alert to the possibility of detecting this disease early and in anyone with protracted illness who has neurologic symptoms particularly of the cranial nerves. The possibility of LD coinfection also needs to be examined in all cases given the findings here of 21 patients with a coinfection out of the 51 tested. Some patients were not tested for coinfection (cost consideration), and the incidence of these coinfecting pathogens could be higher. Australia currently lacks facilities to investigate all aspects of LD. This needs to be redressed and testing funded appropriately for Australians as a health priority. State Public Health Authorities in all states of the Commonwealth need to develop an adequate program for detection, monitoring and treatment of the TBDs discussed within as a matter of urgency. Public health education programs need to be put into place in an effort to reduce the current disease burden regardless of whether its acquisition is local or foreign.

Acknowledgements

The author thanks Drs. Marianne Middelveen and Raphael Stricker for helpful discussion.

Conflict of interest: none to declare

References

1.University of Sydney, Australia, Department Medical Entomology. Ticks. Available from: medent.usyd.edu.au/fact/ticks.htm. Accessed October 3, 2011.

2. McCrossin I. LD on the NSW south coast. Med J Aust. 1986;144:724-725.

3. Hudson B, Stewart M, Lennox V, Fukunaga M, Yabuki M, Macorison H et al. Culture-positive Lyme borreliosis. med J Aust 1998;168:500-502.

4. NSW Dept Health, Sydney Australia. Ticks fact sheet. Available from: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/factsheets ... sheet.html. Accessed Oct 3, 2011.

5. Murtagh J. Murtagh?s general practice. P 267, 5th ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd; 2011.

6. Unsworth B, Stenos J, Graves S, et al Flinders Island Spotted Fever Rickettsioses Caused by ?marmionii? Strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(4):566-73.

7. Unsworth N, Graves S, Nguyen C, Kemp G, Graham J, Stenos J Markers of exposure to spotted fever rickettsiae in patients with chronic illness, including fatigue, in two Australian populations. QJM. 2008; 101(4): 269-274.

8. New Zealand Dermatological Society Palmerston North, New Zealand. Dermnet NZ Resource, Lyme disease. Available from: http://www.dermnetnz.org/bacterial/lyme.html. Accessed October 3, 2011.

9. Feder H, Abeles M, Bernstein M, Whitaker-Worth D, Grant-Kels J Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis Clin Dermatol. 2006 Nov-Dec;24(6):509-20.

10: ILADS.org Bethesda Maryland USA: International Lyme and Associated Diseases. About lyme disease. Available from: http://www.ilads.org/lyme_disease/about_lyme.html. Accessed October 3, 2011.

11. CDC.gov Atlanta USA: Center Disease Control, Lyme disease signs and symptoms. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/. Accessed October 3, 2011.

12. Stricker R, Winger E. Decreased CD57 lymphocyte subset in patients with chronic LD. Immunol Lett. 2001 Feb 1;76(1):43-8.

13. Vannier E, Gewurz B, Krause P Human babesiosis Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008 Sep; 22(3):469-88, viii-ix.

14. Chomel B, Kasten R, Bartonellosis, an increasingly recognized zoonosis J Appl Microbiol. 2010 Sep;109(3):743-50.

15. CDC.gov Atlanta USA: Center Disease Control, Bartonella associated infections. Available from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/ ... ctions.htm. Accessed October 3, 2011.

16. Ismail N, Bloch K, McBride J Human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis Clin Lab Med. 2010 Mar; 30(1):261-92.

17. IGeneX .com. IGenX Inc, Palo Alto Ca USA: Quality assurance and proficiency statement. Available from http://igenex.com/files/QA_PACKAGE_2010.pdf. Accessed October 3, 2011

18. Interpretation criteria for standardized WB for the predominant spp. of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in China. Biomed Environ Sci. 2010 Oct;23(5):341-9.

19. CDC.gov Atlanta USA: Center Disease Control. Lyme Disease Resources for Clinicians. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/healthcare/clinicians.html
20. www. CDC.gov. Atlanta: Center Disease Control. Lyme Disease case definition, 2011 CSTE Position Statement Number: 10-ID-06. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/osels/ph_surveillanc ... urrent.htm


Last update 6th September 2011
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Maalis 09, 2012 20:14

Borrelioosia esiintyy myös Kuubassa. Immunonblottauksessa löydettiin proteiineja 41, 72, 90/93, 34, 47, 60, 58, 56, 65/66 ja 31 kDa. Proteiinit ovat tärkeysjärjestyksessä.

Braz J Infect Dis 2012(Feb); 16(1): 82-5.

Prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in humans from a Cuban village.

Rodríguez I, Fernández C, Sánchez L, Martínez B, Siegrist HH, Lienhard R
Tropical Medicine Institute Pedro Kourí, Havana, Cuba.

|
Lyme disease has not been officially reported in Cuba. However, clinical cases have been serologically reported. Seroprevalence survey of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto antibodies in humans in the country has not been conducted.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of borrelial antibodies in inhabitants of a village with historically high level of tick infestation.

METHODS: Serum specimens from 247 persons randomly selected from the population of the village were examined by IgG Western blot using B31 strain for estimating the prevalence of antibodies profile.

RESULTS: A seroprevalence value interval (95% CI) of 0.6%-7.2% was estimated for the studied population. The prevalent borrelial protein bands on immunoblots were 41, 72, 90/93, 34, 47, 60, 58, 56, 65/66 and 31 kDa in a decreasing order of significance.

CONCLUSION: These results support the previous serological findings, suggesting the presence of this borreliosis in Cuba.
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Huhti 04, 2012 13:18

Bb esiintyy myös Etiopiassa.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2012(Feb); 3(1): 14-7.

Borrelia in Ethiopian ticks.

Cutler S, Abdissa A, Adamu H, Tolosa T, Gashaw A

School of Health and Bioscience, University of East London, Water Lane, Stratford, London E15 4LZ, UK.

# DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2011.08.004

Two regions (Jimma and Dire Dawa) in Ethiopia were investigated for the presence of soft ticks. Although no Ornithodoros spp. ticks were collected during this survey, published records of their existence in Ethiopia were found. An overwhelming infestation of Argas persicus was revealed in a village located adjacent to Dire Dawa. These ticks primarily were feeding on poultry, but were also biting humans. Furthermore, hard ticks were collected from livestock and companion animals in these regions. Collected ticks were assessed for Borrelia by real-time PCR followed by conventional PCR and sequencing to identify species present.

A. persicus ticks were found to carry B. anserina in 3 of 40 (7.5%) A. persicus tick pools, whilst hard tick pools yielded 2 of 16 (12.5%) positive for B. theileri. Collectively, these borrelial species and their tick vectors are likely to have an important economic impact of particular relevance to subsistence farmers in Ethiopia.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » La Heinä 07, 2012 08:16

Borrelioositapauksia löydetään myös Australiasta enenevässä määrin. Tutkimuksessa tautitapaukset todennettiin ihonäytteistä.:

Investigation of Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in Australia obtained from erythema migrans tissue
Case Series
(405) Views (56) Full article downloads
Authors: Mayne PJ
Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 69 - 78
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S31913

Peter J Mayne

International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA

The author is a member of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS)

Background: Lyme disease (LD) is an emerging infectious disease in Australia. There has been controversy regarding endemic lyme disease in the country for over 20 years. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss) and sensu lato (Bbsl) are closely related spirochetal species that are the causative agents of LD in humans. Clinical transmission of this tick-borne disease is marked by a characteristic rash known as erythema migrans (EM). This study employed molecular techniques to demonstrate the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease isolated from EM biopsies of patients in Australia and then investigate their genetic diversity.
Methods: Four patients who presented to the author's practice over a one-year period from mid 2010 to mid 2011 returned positive results on central tissue biopsy of EM lesions using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The findings were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis was then used to genetically characterize the causative organisms.

Results: Three isolates were identified as Bbss that lay genotypically between strains B31 and ZS7 and were then characterized as strain 64b. One of the three isolates though may have similarity to B. bissettii a Bbsl. The fourth isolate was more appropriately placed in the sensu lato group and appeared to be similar, but not identical to, a B. valaisiana-type isolate. In this study, a central biopsy taken within 6 days of infection was used instead of conventional sampling at the leading edge, and the merits of this are discussed.

Conclusion: These patients acquired infection in Australia, further proving endemic LD on the continent. Central biopsy site of EM is a useful tool for PCR evaluation. BLAST searches suggest a genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi, which has implications concerning the diagnosis, clinical severity, and testing of LD in Australia.

Keywords: tissue biopsy, PCR, lyme disease, lyme-like
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » La Heinä 07, 2012 10:21

Itävaltalaisilla metsästäjillä esiintyi erityisen runsaasti kohonneita vasta-ainepitoisuuksia borrelia-bakteereita vastaan (42%). Sen lisäksi löydettiin jonkin verran tartuntoja myös bakteereja vastaan esim. encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, 15%), Puumala-Hantavirus (10%), Newcastle Disease virus (NDV, 4%), [b]borreliosis (IgG 42%, IgM 7%), brucellosis (1%), chlamydiosis (3%), ehrlichiosis (IgG 15%, IgM 3%), leptospirosis (10%), tularaemia (3%), Q fever (0%), Echinococcus multilocularis/E. granulosus (5%/11%), toxocariasis (17%).
[/b]

Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2003 Jul-Aug;116(7-8):306-11.

[Seroepidemiological studies of zoonotic infections in hunters in southeastern Austria--prevalences, risk factors, and preventive methods].

[Article in German].

Deutz A, Fuchs K, Schuller W, Nowotny N, Auer H, Aspöck H, Stünzner D, Kerbl U, Klement C, Köfer J.

Source

Fachabteilung 8C-Veterinärwesen, Universität Wien. armin.deutz@stmk.gv.at

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalences to zoonotic pathogens in hunters, to propose preventive measures and to obtain more information about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in local wild animal populations. From 146 male and 3 female hunters originating from the south-eastern Austrian federal states of Styria and Burgenland blood samples were taken and anamnestic data were obtained using ...a questionnaire. The serological investigations included the following viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonotic agents or zoonoses, respectively (antibody-seroprevalences in brackets): encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, 15%), Puumala-Hantavirus (10%), Newcastle Disease virus (NDV, 4%), borreliosis (IgG 42%, IgM 7%), brucellosis (1%), chlamydiosis (3%), ehrlichiosis (IgG 15%, IgM 3%), leptospirosis (10%), tularaemia (3%), Q fever (0%), Echinococcus multilocularis/E. granulosus (5%/11%), toxocariasis (17%). Out of a control group of 50 persons (urban population, no hunters) only one person was found to be seropositive for Toxocara canis and NDV and four for EMCV, all other results were negative in the control group. The high seroprevalences especially to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Ehrlichia spp., Leptospira interrogans, E. granulosus, E. multilocularis, encephalomyocarditis virus and Puumala virus demonstrate that hunters are particularly exposed to zoonotic pathogens. It should also be noted that one hunter was seropositive for Brucella abortus and five exhibited antibodies to Francisella tularensis. In these cases, as well as in the cases of the 15 seropositives for Leptospira interrogans, the suspected source of infection may--besides rodents--also include wild boars and brown hares. The infections with NDV and Chlamydophila psittaci may be traced back to contact with certain species of birds (potential risk: aviaries). For Hantaviruses, rodents are considered to be the main source of human infections.
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ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Su Elo 12, 2012 09:13

Borrelia-bakteeria Taiwanilla (2012)

Prevalence and molecular identification of Borrelia spirochetes in Ixodes granulatus ticks collected from Rattus losea on Kinmen Island of Taiwan

Li-Lian Chao, Li-Ling Liu and Chien-Ming Shih

Parasites & Vectors 2012, 5:167 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-167
Published: 10 August 2012
Abstract (provisional)
Background

Ixodes granulatus is widely distributed in various countries of Southeast Asia and Taiwan. Although this tick species is presumed to be the vector for the enzoonotic transmission of Borrelia spirochetes in the Taiwan area, the prevalence of infection and genetic diversity of Borrelia spirochetes harbored by this tick species need to be further determined.
Methods

DNA extraction was performed from individual tick specimens collected from Rattus losea on Kinmen Island of Taiwan. Borrelia infection in I. granulatus ticks was detected by performing a specific PCR assay based on the 5S-23S intergenic spacer amplicon gene of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The genetic identities of detected spirochetes were identified by gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.
Results

Borrelia infection was detected in nymph, male, and female stages of Ixodes granulatus ticks with an infection rate of 42.9 %, 36 %, and 52.7 %, respectively. Genospecies identification reveals that B. valaisiana is the main genotype (70.7 %) as compared to the genotype of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (15.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these detected spirochetes were genetically affiliated to the genospecies B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, with a high sequence homology within the genospecies of B. valaisiana (95.8 to 100 %) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (97.2 to 100 %), respectively.

Conclusions

This study highlights the significance of high prevalence and genetic diversity of Borrelia spirochetes in I. granulatus ticks collected from Rattus losea on Kinmen Island of Taiwan. Intraspecific analysis also revealed that B. valaisiana species detected in Kinmen Island can be easily distinguished from the European group of B. valaisiana and other genospecies of Borrelia spirochetes. This may imply an enzoonotic cycle between I. granulatus ticks and rodent hosts that maintains Borrelia spirochetes in Kinmen Island as well as Southeast Asia.

The complete article is available as a provisional PDF. The fully formatted PDF and HTML versions are in production.
http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/cont ... 7/abstract
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Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Maalis 08, 2013 13:35

Romania 2013.

Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.

Authors: Ionita M, Mitrea IL, Pfister K, Hamel D, Silaghi C

Citation: Vet. Parasitol. 2013(Jan)

Location: Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Romania.

DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.01.016

The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp.
A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs.

Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus.
Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus.

These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.01.016
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Viestit: 3097
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Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Pe Maalis 08, 2013 13:51

Brasilia 2013. Borrelioositapaus Etelä-Amerikassa.

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Infecting Ticks of the Ixodes ricinus Complex in Uruguay: First Report for the Southern Hemisphere.

Authors: Barbieri AM, Venzal JM, Marcili A, Almeida AP, González EM, Labruna MB

Citation: Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013(Feb)

Location: 1 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo , São Paulo, SP, Brazil .

DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2012.1102

Abstract
The Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) group comprises genetically related spirochetes, mostly associated with tick species belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex in the Northern Hemisphere.
The present study evaluated borrelial infection in the tick Ixodes pararicinus, which is the only representative species of the I. ricinus complex in Uruguay. A total of 137 I. pararicinus ticks were collected from deer, cattle, or vegetation in 2 Uruguayan Departments. A part of these ticks was tested directly by PCR targeting the borrelial gene flagellin (fla), whereas another part of the ticks was inoculated into Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK)-H medium in an attempt to isolate Borrelia.
Overall, Borrelia infection was detected in 9 males and 1 nymphal tick pool. These ticks were found to be infected by unique fla haplotypes, which were shown through phylogenetic analysis to represent possibly 2 new B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, 1 associated with B. bissettii, the other phylogenetically closest to B. americana. These results were reinforced by PCR and DNA sequencing analyses of portions of 2 additional borrelial genes, rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS) and 16S rDNA (rrs).
Weekly examinations of BSK cultures by dark-field microscopy failed to demonstrate live Borrelia through a 100-day incubation period. However, Borrelia DNA was detected by fla-PCR in culture media from 2 vials up to 90 days after inoculation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. burgdorferi s.l. infecting ticks in South America.
10.1089/vbz.2012.1102
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Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Heinä 10, 2013 19:47

Borreliabakteereita Japanissa.

Lyme Disease Spirochetes in Japan: Enzootic Transmission Cycles in Birds, Rodents, and Ixodes persulcatus Ticks
Minoru Nakao, Kenji Miyamoto and Masahito Fukunaga

The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Vol. 170, No. 4 (Oct., 1994), pp. 878-882

Published by: Oxford University Press
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30134606
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Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Marras 19, 2013 10:42

Facebookissa Lyme disease á Íslandi

https://www.facebook.com/Lymeiceland

Borrelioosi Islannissa


Tutkimus 2011 Islanti. Borrelioosi on maassa harvinainen. Punkit, I.ricinus, ovat kuitenkin lisääntyneet todennäjöisesti ilmaston lämpenemisen johdosta. Siksi punkkien välittämät taudit tulee huomoida.


https://www.ddd.dk/organisatorisk/fagdy ... B3ttir.pdf


The conclusion is that Lyme Borreliosis is not an endemic disease in Iceland and the risk
assessment of dogs in Iceland acquiring the disease is low.
Yet it has to be considered that the density and geographical ranges of the main vector
I.ricinus , probably because of global warming,
has increased. Therefore Icelandic veterinary
surgeons should be on guard for this disease and other infections that ticks may carry.



Abstract

A random epidemiological study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of
antibodies to
Borrelia burgdorferi
sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme Borreliosis, in
apparent healthy dogs in Iceland. The presen
ce of antibodies was determined by whole-
cell Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA
). Due to possible cross reactions, all
positive results were to be confirmed by
Western blot. Sera from 86 dogs of various
ages, breed and both sexes from different regi
ons were tested. Of all the dogs tested,
94,2% (81/86) were seronegative, 5,8% (5/86)
were considered borderline. No dog was
found seropositive (0/86).
This study conclu
des that Lyme Borreliosis is not an endemic
disease in Iceland with an estimated preval
ence in the Icelandic dog population below
2%.


Key words:
Epidemiology, antibodies,
Borrelia burgdorferi
s.l., ELISA, dogs, Iceland, Lyme
Borreliosis
1. Introduction
Lyme Borreliosis (also termed Lyme disease) is a complex multiorgan disorder and represents
the most important tick-borne zoonosis in Europe a
nd in the United States (1, 2, 3, 4). It is
caused by a spirochete of the genus
Borrelia
, collectively termed
Borrelia burgdorferi
sensu
lato (s.l.) but actually represented by a very
large and somewhat diverse group of isolates (5).
The organism is transmitted by ticks of the genus
Ixodes
(6, 7). The species
I. ricinus
is
considered the most important vector in relation to the epidemiology in Europe (7, 8). Other
Ixodes
ticks,
I. hexagonus
and
I. uriae
being nidicolous species, also contribute to the
circulation of
B. burgdorferi
s.l. in Europe (7, 8, 9). Transmission by other vectors such as
flees and mosquitoes has also been reported (5, 10).
Lyme Borreliosis (LB) is categorized as a
zoonotic disease, because the infection is
maintained in nature by humans and domestic animals as incidental hosts, but the reservoirs
hosts are mainly wild small mammals, deer and birds (9, 11).

LB has not been described in dogs in Iceland.
One case of human LB has been reported. It
was a 14 year old boy with arthritis, in the third (chronic) stage of the disease. He probably
did not get infected in Iceland (31).
Two seroepdemiological surveys of antibodies to
Borrelia burgdorferi
s.l. in puffin hunters in
Vestmannaeyjar have been performed in 1988 and 1995. None of the samples where
seropositive, indicating that there is no seroconversion among the hunters, although
frequently exposed to the
I. uriae
ticks (unpublished data 32).
The name Lyme Borreliosis (LB) refers to an ou
tbreak of oligoarthritis in children in Old
Lyme, Connecticut in 1975, who all had a history of tick-bites. In 1982 Burgdorfer et al. and a
year later Barbour et al. isolated the spirochete
Borrelia burgdoferi
sensu lato (s.l.)
from the
hard bodied ticks
I. dammini
in the USA
and
I. ricinus
in Europe (33, 34). After analyses of
the agent, it became clear that the manifold of the symptoms in humans, all were a part of the
same disease-complex, but caused by different species of
B. burgdorferi
s.l. The symptoms of
human LB can be divided into 3 stages. In its ea
rly stage it is characterized by influenza-like
symptoms, followed in 60-80% of the cases by erythema migrans, a skin lesion that spreads
outward from around the site of a tick bite. If untreated, the disease may proceed to a second
or a third stage in which neurological disorder
s and arthritis are common symptoms (18).
Lyme Borreliosis was first suggested and described in dogs 1984 by Lissmann et al. in a
Doberman Pinscher suffering from fever, lethargy and swollen joints (35). In 1992 Wasmoen
et al. fulfilled the Koch’s postulates for
B. burgdorferi
as the causative agent of LB in dogs
(36). Numerous reports of canine LB subsequen
tly followed, describing a variety of clinical
manifestations.
These include fever, inappetence, lethargy, lymp
hadenomegaly and acute onset of stiffness or
lameness (often intermittent and shifting from
one leg to another), swelling or pain in the
affected joints are variably observed in acute infections. In chronic LB recurrent, intermittent,
non-erosive arthritis is consider
ed the primary, clinical mani
festation and does not appear
until 2 to 5 months after exposure to infected ticks (1, 7, 37, 38, 39). Heart block and renal
disease as well as neurological dysfunctions
have also been described (7, 11, 15).
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 6
In some previous studies, the diagnoses were ba
sed on clinical signs similar to those observed
in humans and positive serologic test results.
Green 1990 believes that these studies may not
have been adequate since serologic surveys of dogs living in endemic areas have shown that
up to 50% of dogs can be seropositive yet asym
ptomatic (40). Skotar
czak 2002 demonstrates
this problem partly as a result of cross re
actions that occur between the antigens of
B.
burgdorferi
and related bacteria such as
Treponema
spp,
Bradyspira
sp, and
Leptospira
spp
(15). A study by Hovius et al. 1999 showed that prevalence of
B. burgdorferi
s.l. antibodies is
usually higher in symptomatic dogs compared with healthy ones (41). Levy et al. 1992 and
Goossens et al. 2003 revealed that only clinical
signs, exclusions of other diseases in the
differential diagnosis of the symptoms, possible
exposure to infected ticks and response to
treatment are reliable indicators for diagnosis
of canine borreliosis (42, 43). Most studies
consider a titer of 1:128 or greater as positive,
a titer below 1:64 as negative. A titer between
1:64 and 1:128 as borderline (37, 39).
The aim of this seroepidemiological survey is to find out, if Icelandic dogs are exposed to
Borrelia burgdorferi
s.l. the causative agent of LB, using the enzyme-linked immunoassay
(ELISA) method. If sera is tested positive, it will be confirmed with Western Immunoblot
method.
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 7
3. Laboratory di
agnostic methods
IFA, with
B. burgdorferi
cell preparations on a glass slides, is a first-generation test. Since
IFA test does not allow any differentiation be
tween infected and vaccinated dogs, and cross-
reaction to other spirochetes is possible, many
false positive results may occur (44). Thus
Chambers et al. 1996 developed a novel IFA test where the antigens are adhered to a
monolayer of cultured endothelial cells. This procedure made the test easier to evaluate and
reduces the variability of test results (45).
ELISA, the second-generation test, with whole-
cell preparations or single recombinant
antigens is useful for the detection and prec
ise measurement of antibody responses. Cross-
reactive antibodies can influence the specificity
of the test (44). Schillhorn van Veen et al.
1993 came to the conclusion that periodontal diseases, frequently caused by
Treponema spp.
,
may cause false positive results in the antibody tests for LB (46). Most commercial available
ELISA tests do not differentiate between
infected and vaccinated animals (44).
WB with whole–cell preparations or recombinant antigen is useful for the detection and
precise identification of anti
body responses. It can differentiate between specific and non-
specific cross-reactive antibody reactions and
helps to make the distinction between infected
and vaccinated animal. It is often used as c
onfirmatory assay for IFA or ELISA (44). A study
by Lindenmayer et al. 1990 showed that WB can give false positive results in cases of dogs
with immune-mediated diseases and leptospi
rosis (47). Many authors demonstrate that
serological tests may be deceptive in diagnosis
, as a high proportion of dogs are seropositive
without showing clinical symptoms. Some authors even reveal that serological screening of
healthy dogs is controversial because it can lead
to overdiagnosis or overtreatment of normal
dogs, most of which never develop LB (6).
The direct
B. burgdorferi
detection includes cultivation of
the agents in modified Barbour–
Stoenner-Kelley (BSK) medium and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cultivation is
cumbersome and time-consuming since the or
ganisms are grown in BSK medium over
several weeks and are then detected by dark-field microscopy (44). PCR detects the specific
microbial DNA and is a more sensitive and specific than bacteriological culture (44).
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 8
However PCR lacks the necessary sensitivity for
diagnostic purposes because of sample bias
resulting from the uneven distribution of
Borrelia
throughout biopsy specimens. Furthermore
PCR not only detects living infecting organism
s, but also DNA remnants of the causative
spirochetes (43).
At least five serotypes are categorized to the group of
B. burgdorferi
s.l. and are believed to
play an important role in borrelia infections in Europe (4, 48), see table 1.
Table 1:
Borrelia burgdorferi
s.l. serotypes in Europe. (4, 48).

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

Borrelia afzelii

Borrelia garinii

Borrelia lusitaniae

Borrelia valaisiana
At least three species of the
B. burgdorferi
s.l. complex,
B. afzelii
,
B. garinii
and
B.
burgdorferi
sensu stricto are known to be pathogenic for humans and dogs (4). All serotypes
are reported present in all
I. ricinus
populations examined so far in Europe (10).
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 9
4. Materials and methods
In the year 2006 July to October (in the period of the highest tick activity), a total of 86 serum
samples where randomly obtained (every 3. dog visiting the clinics) from healthy,
asymptomatic dogs, from different regions in Iceland. See figure 1.
The samples were collected from the cephalic vein
of the dogs, by means of 4,7 ml serum-gel
coated tube and a 22G needle. After centrifugation the serum was stored in a freezer until it
was sent to VetMedLabor in Ludwigsburg Germany for a whole-cell Enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and if sera is
tested positive it should be confirmed by
Western blot (WB).
Figure 1: Sampling locations in Iceland.
Sample size was calculated from the program FreeCalc on EpiVetNet (49). The estimated
population size was 12000, estimated prevalence below 10% with 95% confidence interval.
Excluded were imported dogs, since they might have been vaccinated in their country of
origin.
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 10
The sera where partly provided by local veterinary surgeons, and the information
accompanying the sera included age, sex, breed, history and the dates when the sera were
submitted.
The sera were examined by a modified commercial whole-cell ELISA test from the company
Genzyme Virothech GmbH, Rüsselsheim Germany. The test is used for detection of specific
antibodies against
Borrelia burgdorferi
in dogs and horses, in the IgG and IgM class using the
strain
B. burgdorferi
sensu stricto
(DC122.00) as antigen (50).
4.1 Test principle
The ELISA is intended for the semiquantiative and qualitative detection of IgG- and IgM-
antibodies in dog or horse serum. The antibody searched for in the serum forms an immune
complex with the antigen coated on the
microtitre-plate. Unbound immunoglobulins are
removed by washing processes. The enzyme conjugate attaches to this complex. Unbound
conjugate is again removed by washing processes. After adding the substrate solution
(tetramethylbenzidin-TMB), a blue dye is produced by the bound enzyme (peroxidase). The
color changes to yellow, when the stopping solution is added. The specificity is 98% and
sensitivity 100% for IgG and IgM (50).
The concentration of the IgG or IgM antibody titers is given in Virotech Units (VE), see table
2 below.
Table 2: VE units (50).
VE IgG IgM
< 8,0 negative negative
8,0-12,0 borderline borderline
> 12,0 positive positive
VE unit below 8 is considered negative. VE unit between 8 and 12 is considered borderline and should be
tested again after 2-3 weeks if the dog is symptomatic. VE units above 12 are considered positive.
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 11
5. Results
The dogs were of various breeds, 30 females (34,9%) and 56 males (65,1%) and the age
ranged from 6 months to 16 years. See figure 2.
At least 3 of the dogs did have a history of tick bites within previous year.
Figure 2: Age distribution of examined dogs
Of the 86 sera examined for
the IgG and IgM antibodies to
B.burgdorferi
s.l. 94,2% (81/86)
were found negative, inclusive the 3 dogs with pr
evious history of tick bites. Approximately
5,8% (5/86) were considered borderline, e.g. ranging from 8-12 VE units for both IgG and
IgM. The mean age of those 5 dogs was 4,6 years (1-9 years) and they were of various breeds.
3 came from Reykjavík, 1 from Ísafjörður and 1 from Vestmannaeyjar. See Appendix 1. No
sera (0/86) were found positive. See figure 3.
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 12
Figure 3: Antibody titers in Icelandic dogs.
6. Discussion
Since none of the 86 dogs tested positive for antibodies against
Borrelia burgdorferi
s.l., the
relative risk for dogs in Iceland to acquire LB
has to be estimated as low. In order to explain
it, the fact has to be considered that the main vector
I. ricinus
has not been considered
endemic in Iceland although cases, where they have infested humans and domestic animals,
have increased through the years (32). Their ideal climate is high humidity >80% and
temperature between 14-23ºC. These conditions are mainly found in woods and wooded areas
(51). Due to Iceland ́s cold climate, rough vegetation and weather fluctuations the vector
probably is not able to settle in Iceland. But due to global warming these conditions can
change to the benefit of the vectors.
This has been demonstrated well in Sweden.
I. ricinus
is endemic in South- and Mid-Sweden
but North-Sweden has hitherto been considered a non-endemic area. Now the northward
spread of ticks and a gradual rise in human LB cases in the region have been related to milder
winters, springs and autumns (52). However the effect of climate has been disputed by other
authors (53).
Hovedopgave
2007
Page 13
A study by Egenvall et al. 2000 on 588 dogs from three regions in Sweden revealed that none
of the 96 dogs originating from Norrla
nd (North-Sweden) were positive for
Borrelia
burgdorferi
s.l., while the remaining 492 dogs from Götaland (South-Sweden) and Swealand
(Mid-Sweden) showed 3,9% seroprevalence (16).
Other Scandinavian studies have given differing results. In Denmark a study by Hansen and
Dietz 1997 on 205 healthy dogs showed 16,1% seropr
evalence (17). In Norway Åkerstedt et
al. 1996 found 13,8% (12/87) of samples from dogs visiting one animal clinic in Aust-Agder
were positive (21) and Csango and Stamberg 1996 found antibodies to
Borrelia burgdorferi
s.l. in 27% of 149 dogs (22).
Further studies of unsuspected randomly sampled dogs in Europe have compared hunting
dogs with other dogs, since use of the dog is s
een as a potential risk factor. In Slovakia
Stefancikova et al. 1996 found that the seroprevalance among military service dogs was
11,8%, while it was 40% among hunting dogs (20). In Spain Merino et al. 2000 found 84%
seroprevalence among hunting dogs and 35%
among watchdogs (23). In the Netherlands
Goossens et al. 2001 found no significant
differences between hunting dogs 18% and non-
hunting dogs 17% (18). In this study both hunting
dogs, rescue dogs and also pet dogs were
included.
Other potential risk factors like age, breed,
sex, habitat, season and presence of ticks on the
animal were also considered in current study. The 86 dogs were at different ages (see figure
2), both sexes (65,1% males and 34,9% females),
various breeds and from different regions in
Iceland (see figure 1). The samples were collected from July to October 2006, in the period of
the highest tick activity and 3 dogs had history of tick-bite within the previous year. A study
by Pejchalová et al. 2006 in the Czech republic
found 6,5% overall seroprevalance in military
dogs and a significantly higher seroprevalen
ce among older dogs than younger dogs (24).
That corresponds to results of other authors (16, 23).
Baatz et al. 2000 reveal that due to genetic differences, breeds like Golden retrievers and
Labrador retrievers are more susceptible and therefore more likely to be infected than other
breeds (27). Some authors have suggested that th
e dog poses a risk for its owner of acquiring
LB since it, through outdoor activities, easily comes in contact with infected ticks (20).
Hovedopgave
2007

Page 14
According to Goossens et al. 2001 no positive correlation was observed between
seropositivity of hunters and their dogs, thus direct transfer of ticks between dog and owner is
probably insignificant (18).
The vector competence of
I. uriae
for
B. burgdorferi
s.l. has never been demonstrated under
laboratory conditions, but its involvement as a vector of borrelial spirochaetes in transmission
cycles in seabird colonies has been show
n (29). Two seroepidemiological surveys in
Vestmannaeyjar in Iceland in puffin-hunters showed no seroconversion among them, even
though 10% of them recalled being bitten by
I. uriae
within the previous year (unpublished
32). On Faeroe Islands a similar survey was performed. Of 81 serum samples from puffin
hunters, 3 were found to be positive. The findi
ngs of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are
regularly exposed to
I. uriae
indicate that there may be a transfer of
B. garinii
by this tick
species to humans (54).
A study by Bunikis et al. 1995 concluded that the reliability of a serological investigation of
LB increases when antigens are prepared from lo
cal isolated strains (55). In this study all
serum samples where sent to Germany for evaluation, using the strain
Borrelia burgdorferi
sensu stricto
as antigen. As mentioned before, only the strain
B. garinii
has been isolated from
seabird ticks in Iceland (29). This could possibl
y give false negative results but since a whole-
cell ELISA test is used, the cross-reactions among
Borrelia spp.
is over 99%. But the use of
whole-cell ELISA can also give cross-reacti
ons to other related spirochetes such as
Treponema spp.
and
Leptospira spp.
(50).
Levy et al. 1993 demonstrate that in a whole-
cell ELISA the closer the fit of antibody to
antigen, the stronger the reaction. High antibody titer is therefore most likely the result of
reactivity to
B. burgdorferi.
Low antibody titer can however represent reactivity to cross-
reactive antigens (5). The 5,8% (5/86) of borderl
ine cases in this study could be due to cross-
reactions.
Hovedopgave
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ti Marras 19, 2013 12:42

Borreliabakteeri (B.miyamotoi) tarttuu punkkiin myös transovariaalisesti joten ihmisen n mahfdollista saada tartunta myös toukkavaiheen punkista.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23238242


Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013 Feb;4(1-2):46-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2012.06.008. Epub 2012 Dec 10.
Transovarial transmission of Borrelia spirochetes by Ixodes scapularis: a summary of the literature and recent observations.

Rollend L, Fish D, Childs JE.
Source

Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA. Lindsay.Rollend@yale.edu

Abstract

Transovarial transmission (TOT) of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the agent of Lyme disease, by the Ixodes persulcatus group of hard ticks (Ixodidae) has frequently been reported in the literature since the discovery of Lyme disease 1982. Evidence for and against TOT by B. burgdorferi has led to uncertainty and confusion in the literature, causing misconceptions that may have public health consequences. In this report, we review the published information implicating B. burgdorferi as a bacterium transovarially transmitted among ticks of the Ixodes persulcatus group and present new data indicating the transovarially transmitted agent is actually Borrelia miyamotoi. B. miyamotoi, first described in 1995, is antigenically and phylogenetically related to B. burgdorferi, although more closely related to the relapsing fever-group Borrelia typically transmitted by soft ticks (Argasidae). Borrelia infections of unfed larvae derived from egg clutches of
wild-caught Ixodes scapularis are demonstrated to result from transovarial transmission of B. miyamotoi, not B. burgdorferi. The presence of this second Borrelia species, apparently sympatric with B. burgdorferi worldwide also may explain other confusing observations reported on Borrelia/Ixodes relationships.
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja thr0922 » Su Joulu 15, 2013 18:59

Yksi prosentti virolaisia punkkeja kantaa B. miyamotoi lajia:

Detection and Genetic Characterization of Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian Ticks


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3522604/

Ja jos olet Ahvenanmaalta ja sinua on purrut 4 punkkia, yksi niistä tartutti borrelioosin. Eri asia onko se juuri sellainen, mitä testataan (yleensä B. afzelii)...


Prevalence, Diversity, and Load of Borrelia species in Ticks That Have Fed on Humans in Regions of Sweden and Åland Islands, Finland with Different Lyme Borreliosis Incidences

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836827/

Abstract

The incidence of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in a region may reflect the prevalence of Borrelia in the tick population. Our aim was to investigate if regions with different LB incidences can be distinguished by studying the prevalence and diversity of Borrelia species in their respective tick populations. The Borrelia load in a feeding tick increases with the duration of feeding, which may facilitate a transmission of Borrelia Spirochetes from tick to host. Therefore, we also wanted to investigate how the Borrelia load in ticks that have fed on humans varies with the duration of tick feeding. During 2008 and 2009, ticks that had bitten humans were collected from four regions of Sweden and Finland, regions with expected differences in LB incidence. The duration of tick feeding was estimated and Borrelia were detected and quantified by a quantitative PCR assay followed by species determination. Out of the 2,154 Ixodes ricinus ticks analyzed, 26% were infected with Borrelia and seven species were identified. B. spielmanii was detected for the first time in the regions. The tick populations collected from the four regions exhibited only minor differences in both prevalence and diversity of Borrelia species, indicating that these variables alone cannot explain the regions’ different LB incidences. The number of Borrelia cells in the infected ticks ranged from fewer than ten to more than a million. We also found a lower number of Borrelia cells in adult female ticks that had fed for more than 36 hours, compared to the number of Borrelia cells found in adult female ticks that had fed for less than 36 hours.

*****
In Europe, 8 species of this complex have been reported: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bavariensis and B. bissettii. Among them, B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. burgdorferi ss are the most frequently reported in human clinical specimens.
*****
Overall, 26% of the collected ticks (556 of 2,154) contained Borrelia (Table 1). Adult female ticks had a higher Borrelia prevalence (36%) compared to nymphs (25%, p < 0.001).
*****
Seven different Borrelia species were identified by sequence analysis of the 5S-23S and 16S-23S IGS (Table 1). B. afzelii was the predominant species and was detected in 50% of all ticks containing Borrelia, followed by B. garinii (19%), B. valaisiana (7%), B. burgdorferi ss (4%), B. miyamotoi (2%), B. spielmanii (1%), B. lusitaniae (1%), mixed infection of Borrelia species (1%), and 15% were untypeable.
*****
Even though no significant differences in prevalence of Borrelia species between the different regions were noticed, higher proportions of B. garinii infected adult ticks and nymphs were found in Åland Islands, compared to the regions in Sweden (Table 1). Further, 80% (5 of 6) of the ticks infected with B. spielmanii were collected from the Åland Islands.
thr0922
 
Viestit: 65
Liittynyt: Ma Heinä 18, 2011 18:49
Paikkakunta: Helsinki

Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » Ke Helmi 05, 2014 13:37

Borrelioositapauksia myös USA:n etelävaltioissa, kuten Georgia ja Florida.

Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(7):915-931. doi:10.7150/ijms.6273
Research Paper
Lyme Borreliosis in Human Patients in Florida and Georgia, USA
Kerry L. Clark1, Corresponding address, Brian Leydet1,2, Shirley Hartman3
1. Department of Public Health, University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, Florida USA 32224;
2. Current address: Department of Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana USA 70803;
3. Mandarin Wellness Center, Jacksonville, Florida, USA 32257.
How to cite this article:
Clark KL, Leydet B, Hartman S. Lyme Borreliosis in Human Patients in Florida and Georgia, USA. Int J Med Sci 2013; 10(7):915-931. doi:10.7150/ijms.6273. Available from http://www.medsci.org/v10p0915.htm
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the cause of illness in several human patients residing in Florida and Georgia, USA, with suspected Lyme disease based upon EM-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays developed specifically for Lyme group Borrelia spp., followed by DNA sequencing for confirmation, we identified Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in samples of blood and skin and also in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) removed from several patients who either live in or were exposed to ticks in Florida or Georgia. This is the first report to present combined PCR and DNA sequence evidence of infection with Lyme Borrelia spp. in human patients in the southern U.S., and to demonstrate that several B. burgdorferi sensu lato species may be associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in southern states. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that human Lyme borreliosis occurs in Florida and Georgia, and that some cases of Lyme-like illness referred to as southern tick associated rash illness (STARI) in the southern U.S. may be attributable to previously undetected B. burgdorferi sensu lato infections.
Keywords: Lyme borreliosis, Florida, Georgia
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Tammi 15, 2015 11:04

Muista punkeista : Amblyomma americanum ja Ixoides scapularis

Suomennos blogista:
http://infektioista.blogspot.fi/2013/12 ... canum.html


Paddock C D, Yabsley M I. Ecological Havoc, the Rise of White-Tailed Deer and the Emergence of Amblyomma americanum (tick)- Associated Zoonoses in the United States.
In Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Specis transmission. Springer 2007 . ISBN 978-3-540-70961-9.

Tässä artikkelissaan kirjoittajat kuvaavat valkohäntäpeuran (Odocoileus virginianus) osuutta punkkien ilmenemiseen ja punkkivälitteisten tautien esiintymiseen ajan sekä eläinten määrän funktiona. Koska tuo peuralaatu on hyvin suosittu metsästyskohde, sitä on pyritty lisäämään runsaasti. Toinen eläinlaji, jota myös on paljon metsästetty ja jota myös suositaan lisättäväksi on villikalkkuna ( Meleagris gallopavo) Ympäristönmuutosten vaikutusten myötä näiden peurojen ja villikalkkunoitten kantojen lisääntyminen on antanut punkkikannoille myös suotuisat laidunnusmaat ja niitä arvellaan myös esiintyvän ajan myötä runsaammin kuten villiriistaa. .

VALKOHÄNTÄPEURA on myös tuotu Suomeen (Vitsvanshjort).
( Valkohäntäpeura (valkohäntäkauris, Odocoileus virginianus) on Amerikasta kotoisin oleva peurojen alaheimoon kuuluva hyvin sopeutuvainen hirvieläinlaji. ( a survival virtuoso!). Se elääihmisen siirtämänä vieraslajina ainakin Karibialla, Suomessa, Tsekissä ja uudessa-Seelannissa. Laji tuotiin Suomeen 1930- ja 1940-luvuilla, ja nykyisin se on alueellisesti tärkeä riistaeläin. Luontaisella esiintymisalueellaan valkohäntäpeurasta tunnetaan kymmeniä alalajeja , jotka poikkeavat toisistaan ulkonäöltään ja kooltaan).
VILLIKALKKUNA ei Suomessa kaiketi ole, sen sijaan on kesyä siipikarjakalkkunaa.Kalkkuna (Meleagris gallopavo) on kanalintuihin kuuluva lintu joka on peräisin Pohjois-Amerikasta. Nykyisin yleisimmin tunnettu kesykalkkuna polveutuu villikalkkunasta. Villikalkkuna on istutettu Saksaan. Villillä kalkkunalla on kuusi alalajia.Ne poikkeavat toisistaan jonkin verran sekä kooltaan että väriltään, ja ovat kotoisin Pohjois-Amerikan eri osista. Yksi suurikokoisimmista alalajeista on mantereen itäosissa elävä Meleagris gallapavo silvestris, joka voi painaa yli yhdeksän kiloa. Se on väriltään kuparin- ja suklaanruskea Tällä villikalkkunallakin on niitä samoja punkkeja kuin valkohäntäpeuralla Amerikoissa, jopa niin että punkkia kutsutaan turkey tick- nimellä, kalkkunapunkiksi.

Valkohäntäpeura voi toimia reservoaarina monille parasiiteille:
Punkki A. amer. saa siten veriaterioissa E. caffeensin, E. Ewingii, B. lonestarii . . Peurassa voi olla myös A. phagocytophilum tai epäspesifisiä anaplasmoja . Peurassa voi olla myös siimallisia alkueläinparasiittejä kuten Trypanosoma . . Punkki , joka Amerikassa eniten puree on juuri Amblyomma americanum," lone star tick".

Kun näitä kahta riistaeläinajia alettiin lisätä , havaittiin että tämä punkki nimeltä Amblyomma americanum ( lone star tick) myös lisääntyi samoilla alueilla kuin peurat. .Tällä "yksitähtisellä" punkilla on valkoinen täplä selässään.
http://www.cdc.gov/stari/disease/

Punkkien "laiduneläin" valkohäntäperua on havaittu useassa taudissa parasiitin isäntäeläimeksi.

seuraavissa kuudessa punkkitaudeissa avainasemassa olevaksi isäntäeläimeksi:
(1) Ihmisen monosyytti ( tai monosytotrooppinen ) ehrlichiosis (HME)(1986)( Ehrlichia bakteerien aiheuttama: ( Peura on reservoaari E. caffeensis , E. ewingii ja B. kone star - mikro-organismeille).
(2) Ehrlichia ewingii- ehrlichiosis (Lieväoireinen ehrlichiosis)
(3) STARI, ( Southern Tick Assosiated Rash Illness), punkkiin liittyvä ihottuma , Lymen taudin kaltainen. Aiheutuu A. Americanum punkin puremasta.
(4) Lymen tauti ( Borrelia burgdorferi- spirokeetta, Ixoides- lajin punkin puremasta)
(5) Ihmisen babesiosis
(6) Ihmisen granulosyyttinen anaplasmosis (HGA)

Viime vuosisadalla identifioitiin ja luonnehdittiin ensin viisi näistä punkkivälitteisistä taudeista ja viimeksi on havaittu sitten STARI,. A. Americanum- punkilla on osuutta vektorina HME taudissa ja ehrlichiooseissa sekä Starissa.
Ixoides . scapularis voi välittää HGA-tautia ja babesioosista sekä Lymen tautia. Näiden punkkilajien alueet ovat toisiaan osittain kattavia.
•PUNKKI nimeltä Ixoides scapularis (blacklegged tick) aiheuttaa BABESIOOSI tautia. Tämä punkki viihtyy mieluiten pikkujyrsijöissä.
http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/babesiosis/index.html
Luonnollisesti ei peura ja villikalkkuna ole ainoita, joissa on PUNKKI A. americanum .
Luonnollista infektoitumista tapahtuu koiriin, kojootteihin, kaniineihin, kettuihin, makeihin, pesukarhuihin ym.

A. americanum punkkiin on assosioitu muitakin mahdollisia patogeenejä, joille se voi olla vektori, kuten
tularemiaa välittävä Franciscella tularensis,
Q- kuumetta välittävä Coxiella burnetii,
Pilkkukuume- ricketsioosia välittävä Rickettsia parkeri ja mahdollisesti Rickettsia amblyommii.
sekä Lone star virus ( arbovirus 1969).
Panola Mountain Ehrlichia (PME) - bakteeri on märehtijöten sydänsairautta aiheuttava. Tätä PME:tä on voitu eristää peurojen verestä. Punkki voi välittää tätä PME myös vuohiin ja peuroihin edelleen. Tämän PME:n merkitystä ihmiselle ei vielä tiedetä .
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

Re: PUNKKIEN/BAKTEERIEN ESIINTYMINEN

ViestiKirjoittaja soijuv » To Tammi 15, 2015 11:04

Muista punkeista : Amblyomma americanum ja Ixoides scapularis

Suomennos blogista:
http://infektioista.blogspot.fi/2013/12 ... canum.html


Paddock C D, Yabsley M I. Ecological Havoc, the Rise of White-Tailed Deer and the Emergence of Amblyomma americanum (tick)- Associated Zoonoses in the United States.
In Wildlife and Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: The Biology, Circumstances and Consequences of Cross-Specis transmission. Springer 2007 . ISBN 978-3-540-70961-9.

Tässä artikkelissaan kirjoittajat kuvaavat valkohäntäpeuran (Odocoileus virginianus) osuutta punkkien ilmenemiseen ja punkkivälitteisten tautien esiintymiseen ajan sekä eläinten määrän funktiona. Koska tuo peuralaatu on hyvin suosittu metsästyskohde, sitä on pyritty lisäämään runsaasti. Toinen eläinlaji, jota myös on paljon metsästetty ja jota myös suositaan lisättäväksi on villikalkkuna ( Meleagris gallopavo) Ympäristönmuutosten vaikutusten myötä näiden peurojen ja villikalkkunoitten kantojen lisääntyminen on antanut punkkikannoille myös suotuisat laidunnusmaat ja niitä arvellaan myös esiintyvän ajan myötä runsaammin kuten villiriistaa. .

VALKOHÄNTÄPEURA on myös tuotu Suomeen (Vitsvanshjort).
( Valkohäntäpeura (valkohäntäkauris, Odocoileus virginianus) on Amerikasta kotoisin oleva peurojen alaheimoon kuuluva hyvin sopeutuvainen hirvieläinlaji. ( a survival virtuoso!). Se elääihmisen siirtämänä vieraslajina ainakin Karibialla, Suomessa, Tsekissä ja uudessa-Seelannissa. Laji tuotiin Suomeen 1930- ja 1940-luvuilla, ja nykyisin se on alueellisesti tärkeä riistaeläin. Luontaisella esiintymisalueellaan valkohäntäpeurasta tunnetaan kymmeniä alalajeja , jotka poikkeavat toisistaan ulkonäöltään ja kooltaan).
VILLIKALKKUNA ei Suomessa kaiketi ole, sen sijaan on kesyä siipikarjakalkkunaa.Kalkkuna (Meleagris gallopavo) on kanalintuihin kuuluva lintu joka on peräisin Pohjois-Amerikasta. Nykyisin yleisimmin tunnettu kesykalkkuna polveutuu villikalkkunasta. Villikalkkuna on istutettu Saksaan. Villillä kalkkunalla on kuusi alalajia.Ne poikkeavat toisistaan jonkin verran sekä kooltaan että väriltään, ja ovat kotoisin Pohjois-Amerikan eri osista. Yksi suurikokoisimmista alalajeista on mantereen itäosissa elävä Meleagris gallapavo silvestris, joka voi painaa yli yhdeksän kiloa. Se on väriltään kuparin- ja suklaanruskea Tällä villikalkkunallakin on niitä samoja punkkeja kuin valkohäntäpeuralla Amerikoissa, jopa niin että punkkia kutsutaan turkey tick- nimellä, kalkkunapunkiksi.

Valkohäntäpeura voi toimia reservoaarina monille parasiiteille:
Punkki A. amer. saa siten veriaterioissa E. caffeensin, E. Ewingii, B. lonestarii . . Peurassa voi olla myös A. phagocytophilum tai epäspesifisiä anaplasmoja . Peurassa voi olla myös siimallisia alkueläinparasiittejä kuten Trypanosoma . . Punkki , joka Amerikassa eniten puree on juuri Amblyomma americanum," lone star tick".

Kun näitä kahta riistaeläinajia alettiin lisätä , havaittiin että tämä punkki nimeltä Amblyomma americanum ( lone star tick) myös lisääntyi samoilla alueilla kuin peurat. .Tällä "yksitähtisellä" punkilla on valkoinen täplä selässään.
http://www.cdc.gov/stari/disease/

Punkkien "laiduneläin" valkohäntäperua on havaittu useassa taudissa parasiitin isäntäeläimeksi.

seuraavissa kuudessa punkkitaudeissa avainasemassa olevaksi isäntäeläimeksi:
(1) Ihmisen monosyytti ( tai monosytotrooppinen ) ehrlichiosis (HME)(1986)( Ehrlichia bakteerien aiheuttama: ( Peura on reservoaari E. caffeensis , E. ewingii ja B. kone star - mikro-organismeille).
(2) Ehrlichia ewingii- ehrlichiosis (Lieväoireinen ehrlichiosis)
(3) STARI, ( Southern Tick Assosiated Rash Illness), punkkiin liittyvä ihottuma , Lymen taudin kaltainen. Aiheutuu A. Americanum punkin puremasta.
(4) Lymen tauti ( Borrelia burgdorferi- spirokeetta, Ixoides- lajin punkin puremasta)
(5) Ihmisen babesiosis
(6) Ihmisen granulosyyttinen anaplasmosis (HGA)

Viime vuosisadalla identifioitiin ja luonnehdittiin ensin viisi näistä punkkivälitteisistä taudeista ja viimeksi on havaittu sitten STARI,. A. Americanum- punkilla on osuutta vektorina HME taudissa ja ehrlichiooseissa sekä Starissa.
Ixoides . scapularis voi välittää HGA-tautia ja babesioosista sekä Lymen tautia. Näiden punkkilajien alueet ovat toisiaan osittain kattavia.
•PUNKKI nimeltä Ixoides scapularis (blacklegged tick) aiheuttaa BABESIOOSI tautia. Tämä punkki viihtyy mieluiten pikkujyrsijöissä.
http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/babesiosis/index.html
Luonnollisesti ei peura ja villikalkkuna ole ainoita, joissa on PUNKKI A. americanum .
Luonnollista infektoitumista tapahtuu koiriin, kojootteihin, kaniineihin, kettuihin, makeihin, pesukarhuihin ym.

A. americanum punkkiin on assosioitu muitakin mahdollisia patogeenejä, joille se voi olla vektori, kuten
tularemiaa välittävä Franciscella tularensis,
Q- kuumetta välittävä Coxiella burnetii,
Pilkkukuume- ricketsioosia välittävä Rickettsia parkeri ja mahdollisesti Rickettsia amblyommii.
sekä Lone star virus ( arbovirus 1969).
Panola Mountain Ehrlichia (PME) - bakteeri on märehtijöten sydänsairautta aiheuttava. Tätä PME:tä on voitu eristää peurojen verestä. Punkki voi välittää tätä PME myös vuohiin ja peuroihin edelleen. Tämän PME:n merkitystä ihmiselle ei vielä tiedetä .
soijuv
 
Viestit: 3097
Liittynyt: Ke Tammi 21, 2009 14:16

Seuraava

Paluu TUTKIMUSTIETOA BORRELIOOSISTA

Paikallaolijat

Käyttäjiä lukemassa tätä aluetta: Ei rekisteröityneitä käyttäjiä ja 2 vierailijaa