Kuppa (spirokeetta) saattaa siirtyä aivoihin suun alueen hermoratojen kautta:
Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Apr;17(2):113-8.
Molecular and immunological evidence of oral Treponema in the human brain and their association with Alzheimer's disease.
Riviere GR, Riviere KH, Smith KS.
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201-3097, USA.
The purpose of this investigation was to use molecular and immunological techniques to determine whether oral Treponema infected the human brain. Pieces of frontal lobe cortex from 34 subjects were analyzed with species-specific PCR and monoclonal antibodies. PCR detected Treponema in 14/16 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 4/18 non-AD donors (P < 0.001), and AD specimens had more Treponema species than controls (P < 0.001). PCR also detected Treponema in trigeminal ganglia from three AD and two control donors. Cortex from 15/16 AD subjects and 6/18 controls contained Treponema pectinovorum and/or Treponema socranskii species-specific antigens (P < 0.01). T. pectinovorum and/or T. socranskii antigens were also found in trigeminal ganglia and pons from four embalmed cadavers, and 2/4 cadavers also had Treponema in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that oral Treponema may infect the brain via branches of the trigeminal nerve.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Alzheimer
J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Nov 30;216(1-2):92-7. Epub 2009 Sep 19.
TNF-alpha and antibodies to periodontal bacteria discriminate between Alzheimer's disease patients and normal subjects.
Kamer AR, Craig RG, Pirraglia E, Dasanayake AP, Norman RG, Boylan RJ, Nehorayoff A, Glodzik L, Brys M, de Leon MJ.
New York University, College of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, New York, NY 10010, USA. email@example.com
The associations of inflammation/immune responses with clinical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha and elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria would be greater in AD compared to normal controls (NL) and their combination would aid clinical diagnosis of AD. Plasma TNF-alpha and antibodies against periodontal bacteria were elevated in AD patients compared with NL and independently associated with AD. The number of positive IgG to periodontal bacteria incremented the TNF-alpha classification of clinical AD and NL.
This study shows that TNF-alpha and elevated numbers of antibodies against periodontal bacteria associate with AD and contribute to the AD diagnosis.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC ArticleTreponema denticola = suun alueelta löydetty spirokeetta. Se saattaa aiheuttaa myös systeemioireita kuten sydän-verisuoniperäisiä ongelmia.
Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010 Sep;15(5):509-16. Epub 2009 Dec 20.
Treponema denticola alters cell vitality and induces HO-1 and Hsp70 expression in porcine aortic endothelial cells.
Bernardini C, Gaibani P, Zannoni A, Vocale C, Bacci ML, Piana G, Forni M, Sambri V.
Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Production (DIMORFIPA), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
AbstractTreponema denticola is an oral spirochete that is associated with periodontal disease and detected occasionally in extraoral lesions associated with systemic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases.
The effect of specific bacterial products from oral treponemes on endothelium is poorly investigated. This study analyzed the ability of components of the outer membrane of T. denticola (OMT) to induce apoptosis and heat shock proteins (HO-1 and Hsp70) in porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAECs), compared with results obtained with classical pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Cellular apoptosis was detected when pAECs were treated with either OMT or LPS, suggesting that OMT can damage endothelium integrity by reducing endothelial cell vitality. Stimulation with OMT, similarly to LPS response, increased HO-1 and Hsp-70 protein expression in a time-dependent manner, correlating with a rise in HO-1 and Hsp-70 mRNA.
Collectively, these results support the hypothes!
is that T. denticola alters endothelial cell function. Moreover, our in vitro experiments represent a preliminary investigation to further in vivo study using a pig model to elucidate how T. denticola leaves the initial endodontic site and participates in the development of several systemic diseases.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
Int Endod J. 2003 Jan;36(1):20-6.
Oral treponemes in primary root canal infections as detected by nested PCR.
Rôças IN, Siqueira JF Jr, Andrade AF, Uzeda M.
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Estácio de Sá University, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
To investigate the prevalences of four Treponema species in primary root canal infections using a nested PCR assay.
Samples were obtained from 32 infected root canals. Twenty-two cases showed chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions and 10 symptomatic cases were diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis. DNA extracted from the samples was initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers. A second round of amplification used the first PCR products to detect a specific fragment of the 16S rDNA of each Treponema denticola, T. socranskii, T. vincentii and T. pectinovorum.
Bacteria were present in all cases sampled. T. denticola was detected in 77.3% of the asymptomatic cases, T. socranskii in 40.9%, T. vincentii in 18.2% and T. pectinovorum in 13.6%. In the cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, T. denticola was detected in 80%, whilst T. socranskii and T. vincentii were detected in 40% and 10% of cases, respectively. No symptomatic case yielded T. pectinovorum. In general, nested PCR detected T. denticola in 78.1% of the cases, T. socranskii in 40.6%, T. vincentii in 15.6% and T. pectinovorum in 9.4%. At least one of the four Treponema species was found in 84.4% of the cases examined.
The species T. denticola was detected in a large number of the cases examined: the prevalence of T. socranskii was also relatively high. The species T. vincentii and T. pectinovorum were also found, but in a smaller number of cases. Based on these data, the recognized pathogenicity of these microorganisms and their involvement with other oral diseases, they should be included in the restricted set of putative endodontic pathogens.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
full text at: http://www.jneuroinflammation.com/content/8/1/90
Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria
Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011, 8:90 doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-90
It is established that chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, brain atrophy and amyloid deposition in late neurosyphilis. Recently it has been suggested that various types of spirochetes, in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum, could cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review all data available in the literature on the detection of spirochetes in AD and critically analyze the association and causal relationship between spirochetes and AD following established criteria of Koch and Hill. The results show a statistically significant association between spirochetes and AD (P = 1.5 × 10-17, OR = 20, 95% CI = 8-60, N = 247). When neutral techniques recognizing all types of spirochetes were used, or the highly prevalent periodontal pathogen Treponemas were analyzed, spirochetes were observed in the brain in more than 90% of AD cases. Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the brain in 25.3% of !
AD cases analyzed and was 13 times more frequent in AD compared to controls. Periodontal pathogen Treponemas (T. pectinovorum, T. amylovorum, T. lecithinolyticum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. socranskii) and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected using species specific PCR and antibodies. Importantly, co-infection with several spirochetes occurs in AD. The pathological and biological hallmarks of AD were reproduced in vitro by exposure of mammalian cells to spirochetes. The analysis of reviewed data following Koch's and Hill's postulates shows a probable causal relationship between neurospirochetosis and AD. Persisting inflammation and amyloid deposition initiated and sustained by chronic spirochetal infection form together with the various hypotheses suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD a comprehensive entity. As suggested by Hill, once the probability of a causal relationship is established prompt action is needed. Support and attention should be given to this f!
ield of AD research. Spirochetal infection occurs years or decades bef
equate antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies are available, as in syphilis, one might prevent and eradicate dementia.